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Vagrant is a multi-platform command line tool for creating lightweight, reproducible and portable virtual environments. Vagrant acts as a glue layer between different virtualization solutions (Software, hardware PaaS and IaaS) and different configuration management utilities (Puppet, Chef, etc’). Vagrant was started back at 2010 by Mitchell Hashimoto as a side project and later became one of the first products of HashiCorp – the company Mitchell founded.
While officially described as a tool for setting up development environments, Vagrant can be used for a lot of other purposes by non developers as well:
- Creating demo labs
- Testing configuration management tools
- Speeding up the work with non multi-platform tools such as Docker
In this tutorial I’ll show how can we take Vagrant as use it to create small virtual test lab which we will be able to pass to our colleagues.
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Two factor authentication is increasingly becoming a strongly recommended way of protecting user accounts in web applications from attackers by requiring a second method of authentication in addition to the standard username and password pair.
Although two factor authentication can encompass a wide range of techniques like biometrics or smart cards, the most commonly deployed technique in web applications is the one time password. If you have used applications like Gmail, you are probably familiar with the one time password generated by the Google Authenticator app that’s available on iOS or Android devices.
The algorithm used for the one time password in the Google Authenticator app is known as the Time-based One-Time Password (TOTP) algorithm. The TOTP algorithm is a standard algorithm approved by the IETF in (RFC 6238) totp-rfc.