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Explain: #!/bin/bash - or #!/bin/bash -- In A Shell Script

Q. I know #!/bin/bash is shebang line. But, I noticed a few shell script shebang line ends with a single dash ( #!/bin/bash - ) or double dash ( #!/bin/bash -- ). Can you explains me purpose of such shebang line?

A. A - or -- signals the end of options and disables further option processing i.e. bash will not accept any of its option. Any arguments after the -- are treated as filenames and arguments. An argument of - is equivalent to --. This is done to improve script security. Some user may perform setuid based script root spoofing. To avoid interpreter spoofing you need to add -- to #!/bin/bash. This is rare but possible attack.

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{ 12 comments… add one }

  • irado September 23, 2008, 11:12 am

    man bash:

    ” — A — signals the end of options and disables further option processing. Any argu ments after the — are treated as filenames and arguments. An argument of – is equivalent to –.

  • henry September 23, 2008, 1:31 pm

    Hello,

    Please, any possible book i could study more on shell programming? Please, this is the second mail i am sending and i haven’t got a reply.

  • marco September 23, 2008, 1:57 pm

    > henry ‘any possible book i could study more on shell programming?':
    Richard Stones, Neil Matthew – Beginning Linux Programming
    ISBN-13: 9780764543739
    12,20$
    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0764543733

  • Johan September 23, 2008, 2:38 pm

    “Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide” is a great book available at the Linux Documentation Project’s website – http://tldp.org/guides.html

  • nixCraft September 23, 2008, 3:14 pm

    Mastering UNIX Shell Scripting: Books by Randal K. Michael

    Oreilly Classic Shell Scripting

  • dj September 25, 2008, 5:09 pm

    Henry, try “Linux Command” site at:
    http://www.linuxcommand.org/
    The author is in process of writing a book, but imho, if the goal is to teach bash, the site gets an A+. He walks through a real example. It’s good clean code. You’ll learn to do it right.

    Then I would look at “The Linux Documentation Project” at:
    http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO.html

  • marco September 25, 2008, 6:26 pm

    > DJ “http://www.linuxcommand.org/”
    That seems to be a real good source. :)

    • cucho December 16, 2012, 4:01 pm

      This page is * DEAD * Does not exist anymore.

  • tom November 6, 2009, 8:38 am

    when i loggin into redhat as an user . i got a prompt like this -bash-3.1$
    how i can change that into normal user prompt………..
    pls
    thank you

  • runner724 December 9, 2009, 4:53 pm

    you can set whatever prompt you like with

    set PS1=”[newprompt]”; export PS1

    but you’ll have to set the prompt every time you log in, unless you can edit the hidden bash profile that should be in your home dir

  • Anonymous June 15, 2010, 10:57 pm

    #!/bin/bash
    SERVERIP=192.168.23.18
    LOGFILE=/home/user/backup.log
    rsync -avz –delete –numeric-ids \
    –exclude=”.Trash” \
    –exclude=”Downloads” \
    $HOME $SERVERIP:backups/user/ 1>$LOGFILE

    what does this mean?

  • Fred October 20, 2010, 3:31 pm

    Do none of these people know how to use Google ffs?

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