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Linux how long a process has been running?

I‘m a new Linux system user. How do I check how long a process or pid has been running on my Ubuntu Linux server?
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How to get Ethernet Link Speed in MAC OS X Through Command Prompt

I‘m a Mac OS X user. How do I find out my Ethernet Link Speed in terminal using bash shell prompt? How do I see my current Ethernet connection Speed in Mac OS X?
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How to gzip and keep original file on Unix or Linux command line

I would like to compress a log file using gzip Unix command line utility, and I would also like to keep the original file. However, when I use the gzip my-app.log command, results in modifying my log file and renaming it my-app.log.gz. How do I force the gzip command to keep original file while maintaining the original file on Linux or Unix-like system?
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Unix / Linux: Remove duplicate lines from a text file using awk or perl

I have a text file with exact duplicates of lines. I need to remove all those duplicates lines and preserves the order too on Linux or Unix-like system. How do I delete duplicate lines from a text file?
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How to copy permissions from one file to another on Linux

I need to copy or clone file ownership and permissions from another file on Linux. Is there a bash command line option to clone the user, group ownership and permissions on a file from another file on Linux operating system?
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How to reload sysctl.conf variables on Linux

I am new Linux system user. How do I reload all sysctl variables without rebooting my server?
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Ubuntu Linux Change Hostname (computer name)

I am a new Ubuntu Linux laptop user. I setup my computer name to ‘tom’ during installation but now I would like to change the computer name to ‘jerry’. How can I remove tom and set it to jerry on Ubuntu Linux? How do I change the Ubuntu computer name from ‘ubuntu’ to ‘AvlinStar’?
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FreeBSD find the chmod numerical value for a file or directory

I need to find out the numerical value of a file on a FreeBSD system. For example, get 644 instead of -rw-r--r-- for the /etc/resolv.conf file. Is there is a way to get this value in my bash shell script?
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How to enable colorized output for the ls command in Mac OS X Terminal

I am new to Apple OS X. How do I enable colorized output for my ls command on Apple Mac OS X just like the ones that shown on my Ubuntu Linux server? How do I configure Mac OS X Terminal app to have color ls output?
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How to use curl command with proxy username and password on Linux or Unix

My sysadmin provided me the following proxy details:
       Port: 3128
       Username: foo
       Password: bar

The settings worked perfectly with Google Chrome and Firefox browser. How do I use it with the curl command? How do I tell the curl command to use my proxy settings from Google Chrome browser?
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