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Bash Shell Programming HowTos

Tutorials, howtos and programming tips about GNU Bourne-Again SHell (BASH) for Apple OS X, Linux, *BSD and Unix like operating systems. ( rss feed )

Linux Redirect Error Output To File

I am a new Ubuntu Linux and bash shell user. I also know how to redirect output from display/screen to a file using the following syntax:

cmd > file
ls > file

However, some time errors are displayed on screen. How do I store and redirect output from the computer screen to a file on a Linux or Unix-like systems?
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Linux: Bash Delete All Files In Directory Except Few

I'm a new Linux system user. I need to cleanup in a download directory i.e. delete all files from ~/Downloads/ folders except the following types:

*.iso - All iso images files.
*.zip - All zip files.

How do I delete all file except some in bash shell on a Linux, OS X or Unix-like systems?
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HowTo: Compile And Run a C/C++ Code In Linux

I am a new Linux user and student who used to write C or C++ programs on MS-Windows. Now, I am using Ubuntu Linux. How can I compile a C or C++ program on Linux operating systems using bash Terminal application?
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Linux And Unix Command To View File

I am a new Linux bash shell command line user. How can I view a text file using command line on a Linux or Unix-like operating systems? How can I view (open) binary files such as PDF or images on a Linux or Unix like system from command line?
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HowTo: Upgrade To a Newer Version of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Ubuntu Linux version 14.04 LTS has been released. How do I upgrade to a newer version of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS from Ubuntu 13.10 or 12.04 LTS?
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Linux / Unix: Find And List All Hidden Files Recursively

I am a new Unix system shell user. I need to find and list all hidden files including directories on a Linux or Unix-like system. How can I recursively list all hidden files and directories? How do I save result in a text file?
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I'm a new Apple OS X Mabbook user. I am getting an error which read as follows when I connect to any remote Linux/Unix/BSD server or machine through OS X ssh Terminal app:

ssh user@server1.cyberciti.biz
Last login: Wed Mar 26 08:45:36 2014 from
-bash: warning: setlocale: LC_CTYPE: cannot change locale (UTF-8): No such file or directory

How do I fix this error?
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Unix: Find Directory Name From Path

I am a new Unix shell programer. How can I extract the directory name from a full path (say /nas01/data/backups/file.tar.gz)? How do I get directory name from its path on a Linux or Unix-like system?
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Linux/Unix: Find Command Ignore Case Insensitive Search

I am a new Linux and Unix-command line user. I am using find command to search file called "fooBar.conf.sample" in my home directory. I do not know the case, it could be uppercase, lowercase, or a mix of both. How can search a file and ignore case on a Linux or Unix-like system?
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Minify and Compress CSS & Javascript Files At a Linux/Unix Shell Prompt

How do I minify and compress CSS & JS files on Linux or Unix-like system using shell prompt on my server? How can I minify JavaScripts and stylesheets at shell promot so they can download faster over the Internet without using any online tools?
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