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Linux and Unix Commands

Tips and tricks about Linux, OS X, *BSD and Unix commands. Includes commands, syntax, hacks and much more for both new users and sysadmins ( rss feed ).

CentOS Linux: Add Static Routing

I am a new CentOS Linux sysadmin. How can I add static route On CentOS Enterprise Linux server running on HP amd64 server?
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SteamOS Default Login Password For Steam Machine

I am a new Linux user and built my own Steam Machine. The system is powered by Linux-based operating system called SteamOS. What is the default default login password for SteamOS? How can I login into SteamOS?
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Mac OS X: Terminal Download File Command

I often need to download files using the Terminal. However, I am unable to find the wget command on OS X. How do download files from the web via the Mac OS X bash command line option?
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GPG Change Passphrase Secret Key Password Command

I know how to cange a passphrase for openssh using ssh-keygen command. How do I change a GPG encryption key's passphrase on Linux or Unix like operating systems? How do I change the passphrase of the secret key using gpg?
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Change Password Using passwd Command Over SSH Based Session

I'm a new Ubutnu Linux user. I backup files to our corporate Unix backup server using the rsync command. The server only allow to upload/download files. I am unable to login to the server. How do change my password using the passwd command over ssh based session?
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Ubuntu Linux LTS: Force Kernel Package Updates Which Have Been Kept Back

I am using Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS ("precise"). I am trying to upgrade all packages using kernel via apt-get upgrade method. But, I am getting the following message:

apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages have been kept back:
linux-headers-virtual linux-image-virtual mysql-client-5.5 mysql-server-5.5

The following packages will be upgraded:
base-files dosfstools linux-libc-dev linux-libc-dev:i386
4 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 5 not upgraded.
Need to get 1,847 kB of archives.
After this operation, 2,048 B of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?

How do I fix this issue and install linux-headers-virtual linux-image-virtual packages which have been kept back in Ubuntu Linux LTS version 12.04.2?
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Mac OS X: Set / Change $PATH Variable

I need to add dev tools (such as JDK and friends) to my PATH. How do I change $PATH variable in OS X 10.8.x? Where does $PATH get set in OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion?
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HowTo: Find a Directory On Linux Based System

I just switched from MS-Windows server admin to Debian Linux server admin role. I need to find a directory called project.images. I was also told that the locate command is the simplest and quickest way to find the locations of files and directories on Linux. But, the locate command is not working out for me. How do I find project.images directory using command line options only?
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Linux / Unix: Sort ls Command Output By Last Modified Date and Time

I download lots of files in ~/Downloads/ folder in Ubuntu Linux and OS X desktop. How do I show last downloaded file first using the ls command?
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HowTo: Pronounce Mac OS X

I am a new Apple Macbook pro user. Is Mac OS X pronounced as "Mac OS E-X" or "Mac OS Ten"? How do you pronounce the Apple Mac os X? How do I find out OS X version using command line tool?
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