Linux and Unix Commands

Tips and tricks about Linux, OS X, *BSD and Unix commands. Includes commands, syntax, hacks and much more for both new users and sysadmins ( rss feed ).

I‘m a new Ubutnu Linux user. I backup files to our corporate Unix backup server using the rsync command. The server only allow to upload/download files. I am unable to login to the server. How do change my password using the passwd command over ssh based session?

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I am using Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS (“precise”). I am trying to upgrade all packages using kernel via apt-get upgrade method. But, I am getting the following message:

apt-get upgrade

Reading package lists… Done

Building dependency tree

Reading state information… Done

The following packages have been kept back:

linux-headers-virtual linux-image-virtual mysql-client-5.5 mysql-server-5.5

mysql-server-core-5.5


The following packages will be upgraded:

base-files dosfstools linux-libc-dev linux-libc-dev:i386

4 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 5 not upgraded.

Need to get 1,847 kB of archives.

After this operation, 2,048 B of additional disk space will be used.

Do you want to continue [Y/n]?



How do I fix this issue and install linux-headers-virtual linux-image-virtual packages which have been kept back in Ubuntu Linux LTS version 12.04.2?

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I need to add dev tools (such as JDK and friends) to my PATH. How do I change $PATH variable in OS X 10.8.x? Where does $PATH get set in OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion?

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I just switched from MS-Windows server admin to Debian Linux server admin role. I need to find a directory called project.images. I was also told that the locate command is the simplest and quickest way to find the locations of files and directories on Linux. But, the locate command is not working out for me. How do I find project.images directory using command line options only?

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I download lots of files in ~/Downloads/ folder in Ubuntu Linux and OS X desktop. How do I show last downloaded file first using the ls command?

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I am a new Apple Macbook pro user. Is Mac OS X pronounced as “Mac OS E-X” or “Mac OS Ten”? How do you pronounce the Apple Mac os X? How do I find out OS X version using command line tool?

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I am a new Fedora Linux version 18 system administrator. How do I restart dhcpd server using command line options in Fedora Linux server running on HP server hardware?

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