Filesystem Tutorials and HowTos

Tutorials and commands about Linux, Apple OS X, BSD and Unix like file system. Includes file system management, creating file systems & volumes, software RAID, backups, recovery, and conman operations on file systems ( rss feed ).

I‘m a new Ubuntu Linux version 14.04 LTS user. I need additional swap space to improve my Ubuntu server performance. How can I add a swap space on Ubuntu Linux 14.04 LTS using command line over the ssh based session?


I am a new Linux and Unix-command line user. I am using find command to search file called “fooBar.conf.sample” in my home directory. I do not know the case, it could be uppercase, lowercase, or a mix of both. How can search a file and ignore case on a Linux or Unix-like system?

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I‘m a new FreeBSD unix user and backup file on a FreeBSD based unix server. How can I check quota limits and disk usage using shell prompt on a FreeBSD based system?


I am using NFS server version 4.x on a CentOS/RHEL based system. I’m mounting my shared /var/www/ directory on five Apache based nodes using the following syntax:

mount -t nfs4 -o rw,intr,hard,proto=tcp rocknas02:/httproot/www /var/www/

I noticed that due to bug in my app user can sometime upload executable or other device files to get out of chrooted Apache server. How can I prevent such security issues on a CentOS or RHEL based NFS client and sever setup?


Recently, I switched from MS-Windows based web-server to CentOS Linux based Apache web-server. All user uploaded files are stored in /var/www/uploads/ directory. Is there command that can give me a list of files that have been added to the filesystem at /var/www/uploads/ in last 7 days on Linux/Unix-like oses?


My cloud based backup service provider has ssh access to the backup system. How do I install and configure duplicity software for remote backups in incremental and encrypted format on Debian or Ubuntu Linux based desktop / laptop / server?


I just switched from MS-Windows server admin to Debian Linux server admin role. I need to find a directory called project.images. I was also told that the locate command is the simplest and quickest way to find the locations of files and directories on Linux. But, the locate command is not working out for me. How do I find project.images directory using command line options only?