Filesystem Tutorials and HowTos

Tutorials and commands about Linux, Apple OS X, BSD and Unix like file system. Includes file system management, creating file systems & volumes, software RAID, backups, recovery, and conman operations on file systems ( rss feed ).

I need additional swap space to improve my FreeBSD Unix server/desktop performance. How do I add a swap file to FreeBSD system using command line options without creating a new partitions? How do I encrypt swap space on a FreeBSD Unix server for security purpose?


I‘m a new Ubuntu Linux version 14.04 LTS user. I need additional swap space to improve my Ubuntu server performance. How can I add a swap space on Ubuntu Linux 14.04 LTS using command line over the ssh based session?


I am a new Linux and Unix-command line user. I am using find command to search file called “fooBar.conf.sample” in my home directory. I do not know the case, it could be uppercase, lowercase, or a mix of both. How can search a file and ignore case on a Linux or Unix-like system?

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I‘m a new FreeBSD unix user and backup file on a FreeBSD based unix server. How can I check quota limits and disk usage using shell prompt on a FreeBSD based system?


I am using NFS server version 4.x on a CentOS/RHEL based system. I’m mounting my shared /var/www/ directory on five Apache based nodes using the following syntax:

mount -t nfs4 -o rw,intr,hard,proto=tcp rocknas02:/httproot/www /var/www/

I noticed that due to bug in my app user can sometime upload executable or other device files to get out of chrooted Apache server. How can I prevent such security issues on a CentOS or RHEL based NFS client and sever setup?


Recently, I switched from MS-Windows based web-server to CentOS Linux based Apache web-server. All user uploaded files are stored in /var/www/uploads/ directory. Is there command that can give me a list of files that have been added to the filesystem at /var/www/uploads/ in last 7 days on Linux/Unix-like oses?


My cloud based backup service provider has ssh access to the backup system. How do I install and configure duplicity software for remote backups in incremental and encrypted format on Debian or Ubuntu Linux based desktop / laptop / server?