Linux For Beginners & Advanced Users

Tutorials, howtos, faqs, hacks, and tips about GNU/Linux operating systems for Linux users sorted by easy, intermediate and advanced level. ( rss feed ).

chroot command

I am a new Linux and Unix user. How do I change the root directory of a command? How do I change the root directory of a process such as web-server using a chroot command to isolate file system? How do I use a chroot to recover password or fix the damaged Linux/Unix based environment?


How do I minify and compress CSS & JS files on Linux or Unix-like system using shell prompt on my server? How can I minify JavaScripts and stylesheets at shell promot so they can download faster over the Internet without using any online tools?


How can I update for Google Cloud SDK components on a Linux or OS X unix based systems?


I know wget can resume a failed download. I am on a Mac OS X and do now want to install wget command. How can I resume a failed download using curl command on Linux or Unix-like systems?


I often see commands as follows posted on blog or forums

cp /etc/httpd/httpd.{,.bakup}


mv resume{z,}.doc

What is the purpose of {,} in Linux and Unix shell commands?


I run a web-server and I would like to log packets with un-routable source addresses on Linux operating system. How can I log spoofed packets on Debian / Ubuntu / CentOS / RHEL / Linux based server? How can I log a Martian packet (packet from Mars) on Linux operating systems?


Recently, I switched from MS-Windows based web-server to CentOS Linux based Apache web-server. All user uploaded files are stored in /var/www/uploads/ directory. Is there command that can give me a list of files that have been added to the filesystem at /var/www/uploads/ in last 7 days on Linux/Unix-like oses?