Linux For Beginners & Advanced Users

Tutorials, howtos, faqs, hacks, and tips about GNU/Linux operating systems for Linux users sorted by easy, intermediate and advanced level. ( rss feed ).

I‘m a new Apple OS X Mabbook user. I am getting an error which read as follows when I connect to any remote Linux/Unix/BSD server or machine through OS X ssh Terminal app:

Last login: Wed Mar 26 08:45:36 2014 from
-bash: warning: setlocale: LC_CTYPE: cannot change locale (UTF-8): No such file or directory

How do I fix this error?


I am a new Unix shell programer. How can I extract the directory name from a full path (say /nas01/data/backups/file.tar.gz)? How do I get directory name from its path on a Linux or Unix-like system?

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I am a new Linux server user. I need to tunnel X over ssh. I type the following command from OS X Unix terminal to login into far_away_machine (a centos server):

ssh -X -o options -A -p 22 user@centos-far-away-server

But, I am getting the following error on screen:

X11 forwarding request failed on channel 0
Last login: Sun Mar 23 15:58:51 2014 from

How do I fix “X11 forwarding request failed on channel 0″ on Linux or Unix-like systems?


I am a new Linux and Unix-command line user. I am using find command to search file called “fooBar.conf.sample” in my home directory. I do not know the case, it could be uppercase, lowercase, or a mix of both. How can search a file and ignore case on a Linux or Unix-like system?

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I recently read that SSH keys provide a secure way of logging into a Linux and Unix-based server. How do I set up SSH keys on a Linux or Unix based systems? In SSH for Linux/Unix, how do I set up public key authentication?


chroot command

I am a new Linux and Unix user. How do I change the root directory of a command? How do I change the root directory of a process such as web-server using a chroot command to isolate file system? How do I use a chroot to recover password or fix the damaged Linux/Unix based environment?


How do I minify and compress CSS & JS files on Linux or Unix-like system using shell prompt on my server? How can I minify JavaScripts and stylesheets at shell promot so they can download faster over the Internet without using any online tools?