Unix Tutorials and HowTos

Question and answer for users of Unix-like operating systems. Topic includes – Unix commands, servers, security, networking, shell programming, troubleshooting and much more ( rss feed ).

I want test my Linux, OpenBSD, FreeBSD and Unix-like server entirely for high load and monitoring the health under stress. How can I stress out my CPU, memory, I/O, and disk stress and more with stress test tool on a Linux or Unix-like systems?


I need additional swap space to improve my FreeBSD Unix server/desktop performance. How do I add a swap file to FreeBSD system using command line options without creating a new partitions? How do I encrypt swap space on a FreeBSD Unix server for security purpose?


I have Soekris single board communication embedded computers which is optimized for low power and network usage. The server has four Ethernet ports. I’ve installed PFSense firewall on it and configure WAN + LAN ports. How do I setup IPv4 software bridge using PFSense so that the rest of ports act as a network switch?


I‘m using CentOS 7 server. I need to run a command when I logout using ssh or bash shell. So in Linux and Unix-like systems, how can I run a command to execute when I log out my session?


I‘m a new Linux, OS X or Unix-like system users. I’m using bash shell. I made changes to my $HOME/.profile ($HOME/.bash_profile) file. How can I restart my session without doing logout and login again?


I‘m a new FreeBSD unix user. How can I install MySQL and/or MariaDB database server on a FreeBSD unix based system?

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I want to extract tar file to specific directory called /tmp/data. How can I extract a tar archive to a different directory using tar command on a Linux or Unix-like systems?