Commonly used UNIX / Linux commands by new user

by on March 3, 2006 · 0 comments· LAST UPDATED May 13, 2008

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Q. . I'm a new Linux user. Can you tell me commonly used Linux / UNIX command?

A. If you are new to Linux/FreeBSD or Solaris then you will find that there are some very powerful commands that you use repeatedly. Here is a list of commonly used commands:

Shutdown the operating system

halt
init 0
shutdown -h now

Reboot the operating system

reboot
init 6

Display the manual (man) page for the given command. The must command for mastering Linux/UNIX. If you do not know how to use some command, use man to display its manual page. Remember you can exit a man page by pressing q.
man ls
man man
man date

Switch the current user. If you logged in as vivek and need to change to user account jadmin, then you need to type following command:
su - jadmin
However, this command is mostly used to switch super user account. Just type command su - and you will switch to root user account with its entire environment exported
su -
Display the environment variable:
env
Display a message on the screen or display value of environment variable. For example, display value of HOME variable:
echo $HOME
Setup and export environment variable, for example setup JAVA path with following command:
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/java/bin
Display list of currently running process. To exit top press q
top
Display full path of shell command. For example display full path of gcc command:
which gcc
Display list of logged in users
who
Display what users are doing
w
Display status of network
netstat -r
netstat -nat

Display or setup routing table
route
Manage network interface
ifconfig
Red hat Linux menu driven utility to configure system
setup
Suse Linux menu driven utility to configure system
yast2
yast

FreeBSD menu driven utility to configure system
sysinstal

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