Explain Linux / UNIX dot-files

by on December 13, 2007 · 2 comments· LAST UPDATED December 15, 2007

in

Q. Can you tell me more about dot-files that shell and many UNIX command reads?

A. A dot file is nothing but a configuration file usually stored in users home directory. Dot files are used to configure the settings for many UNIX / Linux programs such as:
=> Bash / csh / ksh shell
=> Vi / Vim and other text editor
=> And many other applications

Usually UNIX like operating system is configured with hundreds of file located at /etc/ or /usr/local/etc or other special directories. Each application has a unique format. User can override many application defaults by creating their own configuration file in home directory. To hide configuration file from normal listing of the home directory, the name of the config file / directory prefixed with a dot (period). Thus, you got name dot file.

You can list dot files using ls command:
$ ls -a
$ ls -ld .*
$ ls -a | grep '^\.'

Output:

.
..
.adobe
.automatix
.azureus
.bash_history
.bmp
.cache
.config
.DCOPserver_vivek-desktop__0
.DCOPserver_vivek-desktop_:0
.dmrc
.esd_auth
.fontconfig
.fullcircle
.....
......
...
.tvtime
.update-manager-core
.update-notifier
.viminfo
.vimrc
.vlc
.w3m
.Xauthority
.xine
.xsession-errors

You can edit or update all dot files with standard text editor. You can also browse other users configuration file online here.

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{ 2 comments… read them below or add one }

1 Robert de Bock December 14, 2007 at 1:24 pm

Good to explain such common things, but your command (using ls and grep) could be simplified:

ls -ld .*

That should also work.

Reply

2 nixCraft December 15, 2007 at 7:59 am

Robert,

Thanks for simplified version

I appreciate your comment.

Reply

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