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HowTo Format Date For Display or Use In a Shell Script

How do I format date to display on screen on for my shell scripts as per my requirements on Linux or Unix like operating systems?

You need to use the standard date command to format date or time. You can use the same command with the shell script.

Syntax

Tutorial details
DifficultyEasy (rss)
Root privilegesNo
Requirementsdate
Estimated completion time5m
The syntax is

date +FORMAT

OR

date +"%FORMAT"

OR

date +"%FORMAT%FORMAT"

OR

date +"%FORMAT-%FORMAT"

Task: Display date in mm-dd-yy format

Open a terminal and type the following date command:
$ date +"%m-%d-%y"
Sample output:

02-27-07

To turn on 4 digit year display:
$ date +"%m-%d-%Y"
Just display date as mm/dd/yy format:
$ date +"%D"

Task: Display time only

Type the following command:
$ date +"%T"
Outputs:

19:55:04

To display locale's 12-hour clock time, enter:
$ date +"%r"
Outputs:

07:56:05 PM

To display time in HH:MM format, type:
$ date +"%H-%M"
Sample outputs:

00-50

How do I save time/date format to the shell variable?

Simply type the following command at the shell prompt:
$ NOW=$(date +"%m-%d-%Y")
To display a variable use echo / printf command:
$ echo $NOW

A sample shell script

#!/bin/bash
NOW=$(date +"%m-%d-%Y")
FILE="backup.$NOW.tar.gz"
echo "Backing up data to /nas42/backup.$NOW.tar.gz file, please wait..."
# rest of script
# tar xcvf /nas42/backup.$NOW.tar.gz /home/ /etc/ /var
 

A complete list of FORMAT control characters supported by the date command

FORMAT controls the output. It can be the combination of any one of the following:

%FORMAT StringDescription
%%a literal %
%alocale's abbreviated weekday name (e.g., Sun)
%Alocale's full weekday name (e.g., Sunday)
%blocale's abbreviated month name (e.g., Jan)
%Blocale's full month name (e.g., January)
%clocale's date and time (e.g., Thu Mar 3 23:05:25 2005)
%Ccentury; like %Y, except omit last two digits (e.g., 21)
%dday of month (e.g, 01)
%Ddate; same as %m/%d/%y
%eday of month, space padded; same as %_d
%Ffull date; same as %Y-%m-%d
%glast two digits of year of ISO week number (see %G)
%Gyear of ISO week number (see %V); normally useful only with %V
%hsame as %b
%Hhour (00..23)
%Ihour (01..12)
%jday of year (001..366)
%khour ( 0..23)
%lhour ( 1..12)
%mmonth (01..12)
%Mminute (00..59)
%na newline
%Nnanoseconds (000000000..999999999)
%plocale's equivalent of either AM or PM; blank if not known
%Plike %p, but lower case
%rlocale's 12-hour clock time (e.g., 11:11:04 PM)
%R24-hour hour and minute; same as %H:%M
%sseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC
%Ssecond (00..60)
%ta tab
%Ttime; same as %H:%M:%S
%uday of week (1..7); 1 is Monday
%Uweek number of year, with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)
%VISO week number, with Monday as first day of week (01..53)
%wday of week (0..6); 0 is Sunday
%Wweek number of year, with Monday as first day of week (00..53)
%xlocale's date representation (e.g., 12/31/99)
%Xlocale's time representation (e.g., 23:13:48)
%ylast two digits of year (00..99)
%Yyear
%z+hhmm numeric timezone (e.g., -0400)
%:z+hh:mm numeric timezone (e.g., -04:00)
%::z+hh:mm:ss numeric time zone (e.g., -04:00:00)
%:::znumeric time zone with : to necessary precision (e.g., -04, +05:30)
%Zalphabetic time zone abbreviation (e.g., EDT)
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{ 45 comments… add one }

  • Michael Shuler February 27, 2007, 10:38 pm

    An alternate that I use for several scripts is to eval $TIME and add useful text – uses similar format statements as date – see the manpage.

    $ for node in $( cat nodes ) ; do env TIME=”$node elapsed time: %E” time rsync -az data $node: ; done
    alpha.nyc elapsed time: 0:30.82
    beta.lax elapsed time: 1:01.81
    gamma.lon elapsed time: 2:39.64
    $

  • noel villeroz March 22, 2007, 9:07 pm

    It’s great and I learned a lot from this topic…

  • neo424 July 13, 2007, 7:53 am

    I need to send my analog hits to my email box automatically.

    This is my command set,

    cd /home/cpanelaccount/tmp/analog
    ls -al
    grep id=55 4.html | wc -l | mail -s “csppg hits” my@emailc.om

    analog create log files 1-12.htm. ex: 4.html for April. After year it replace these files.

    How do I determent the month and make my commands automatic send information using cronjob?

  • unique November 12, 2007, 4:49 am

    how can get week of the month?..
    ex : 1102 (second week in the november)

  • vij January 11, 2008, 12:38 pm

    how do i comapre time in 07:35:15AM format through shell script

  • Dravid May 29, 2009, 10:55 am

    Nice one.

  • comrad June 17, 2009, 9:21 am

    Oh nice :-) And available via IPv6!

  • ashwani June 18, 2009, 10:43 am

    for space we can use \
    see the output
    Work Hard buddy [root@server1 04:05 PM]\ date +%F\ %r
    2009-06-18 04:05:45 PM

  • Mangesh October 9, 2009, 7:30 am

    How to display yesterday date?

  • Me October 30, 2009, 7:52 am

    Thanks a BUNCH !
    That was simple and effective for the beginners.

  • Miroslav March 2, 2010, 2:56 pm

    I setup linux script to delete my backups older than few days:
    RBRDAN=`date –date=”3 days ago” +%w`

    rm /u02/oracle/backup/rman/$RBRDAN/*

    But, I got error:
    rm: cannot remove `/u02/oracle/backup/rman/6\r/*': No such file or directory

    For some reason, it gives me “\r” at the end of the day. Instead of “6”, it gives me “6\r”.
    Does anybody know what is the problem.

    Thanks.

  • Guy March 24, 2010, 8:41 pm

    Hi everyone!
    This is a great document that covers most of my date/time issues :-)

    However I am trying to cron a job that will execute my bash script, the challenge that I am facing is I need to run the script for the last 12 hours, here is what I have:

    #!/usr/bin/bash
    # Set the current local time in this format: ’03/18/2010 17:52:18′
    CURR_DATE=`date +%m/%d/%Y” “%H:%M:%S`
    #Set the start time (current time – 12 hours) <– This is where I am stuck!!!
    START_DATE=`date +%m/%d/%Y" "%T`

    How do set the start time to CURR_DATE -12 hours???

    Thanks,
    guy

  • Guy March 24, 2010, 8:51 pm

    I should mentioned that I am using SunOS 5.10
    As I have tried
    E=$(date –date=’-12 hours’)
    and it’s not working!

    I get this error:
    date: illegal option — date=-12 hours
    usage: date [-u] mmddHHMM[[cc]yy][.SS]
    date [-u] [+format]
    date -a [-]sss[.fff]

  • Guy March 24, 2010, 9:57 pm

    So I got this from a friend, how recommended to use perl:

    CURR_DATE=`perl -e ‘use POSIX qw(strftime);$d = strftime “%m/%e/%Y %H:%M:%S”, localtime(time);print $d;’`
    START_DATE=` perl -e ‘use POSIX qw(strftime);$d = strftime “%m/%e/%Y %H:%M:%S”, localtime(time() – 43200);print $d;’`
    echo $CURR_DATE
    echo $START_DATE

    This works great!!

  • Balaswamy vaddeman August 28, 2010, 9:18 am

    it is good one for unix beginners.
    I want to display month in aphabets like Jan ,Feb and Mar.
    anybody suggest me command for that. thank you in advance.

    • nixCraft August 28, 2010, 9:26 am

      Tested with GNU date:

      date +"%b"
      date +"%b" --date="1 month ago"
      for d in {1..6}; do date +"%b" --date="$d month ago"; done
      man date
  • bhavesh September 13, 2010, 11:42 pm

    @Balaswamy : easiest way to print months in alphabets format is using CASE

  • Balaswamy vaddeman September 22, 2010, 5:19 am

    Thank you Bhavesh ,%b option also worked for me.

  • Amit Jain December 15, 2010, 6:48 am

    Thanks a lot it helped.

  • saianth chemate March 5, 2011, 5:56 am

    hellow…..
    I was thinking for writing code for the date formate comperison
    if any one having any idea abt it plz informe me…….
    i willl apriciate that…

  • soumita June 3, 2011, 7:30 am

    Hi,

    I am writing a script which needs 2 arguments – arg1: current date & time,arg2: 5 min after date & time.Can anyone help me how to get after 5 min time of current time in sun 5.10?I have tried with the below syntax, but it is not working.

    a=`date “+%Y%m%d %T” -d “+5 min”`

    • Ashish July 7, 2013, 12:17 pm

      a= date “+%Y%m%d%T” -d +5 min”

  • phpsnook July 8, 2011, 7:25 am

    Hi i have a unix date in file a file like this ‘1313675999’
    in oracle i would do it like this

    select TO_CHAR ( TO_DATE (‘01011970′, ‘DDMMYYYY’)+ 1 / 24 / 60 / 60 * 1313675999,’YYYYMMDD’) from dual

    how to achive the same in unix ?

    • phpsnook July 8, 2011, 11:44 am

      echo 1313675999 | perl -e ‘use Time::localtime; $tm=localtime(); printf(“%d/%d/%d\n”, $tm->mday, $tm->mon+1, $tm->year+1900);’

  • Another Guy August 23, 2011, 7:29 pm

    How do I get the day of the week for tomorrow and the day after? For example, if today is Monday, how can I get “Tuesday” and “Wednesday”? I have weather data for day2 and day3 from getwthr.com (for GeekTool) but need the days of the week to apply it to.

    Thanks.

  • Lernen January 4, 2012, 7:34 am

    Thank you!! I tried to format a date string for myself but date –help didnt show anything about the “+” which is important for formating…. -.- thanks again!

  • bala June 19, 2012, 2:03 pm

    Thanks a lot… it really helped me..

  • Sathish Sundaravel August 31, 2012, 6:36 am

    How do i print the yesterday date

  • aleci October 3, 2012, 2:18 pm

    Hi guys! This site is really informative but I have one question. Given a specific date entered by the user how can I pass that for the date function to format and display?

    Thanks!

  • Cr0t February 27, 2013, 9:50 pm

    that so didn’t work for me…. I wrote a dirty work around

    my variable ALLDATES looks like this
    02/11/13
    02/12/13
    02/13/13
    02/14/13
    02/15/13

    —BEGIN—
    for sorttime in $ALLDATES;
    do
    date +%s -d “$sorttime” >> $$
    done

    ALLDATES=`cat $$ | sort`
    rm $$ -f

    for sorttime in $ALLDATES;
    do
    date -d @$sorttime +%D >> $$
    done

    ALLDATES=`cat $$`
    rm $$ -f
    —END—

    Yeah…. this is not pretty, but it does the jobs. It converts the time into ctime, sorts it and then puts it back.

  • danmark June 20, 2013, 2:44 pm

    great help for this noob.
    works for
    dehdate=$(date +%Y%m%d”)
    dehdmsg1=”HELLO $dehdate”
    echo dehdmsg1
    .
    does not work for
    dehdmsg2 =”$dehdate HELLO”
    echo dehdmsg2
    yields
    HELLO20
    Will do more looking.

  • Rick Carrick July 12, 2013, 8:32 pm

    date +%c –date=”tomorrow”

  • Tsunami Australia September 2, 2013, 10:26 am

    Thanks a heap for this document. I was looking for a method of naming cron’ed backup files on a CentOS webserver so could have backup-*date*-etc, backup-*date*-var_www etc

    Using the methods you’ve shown I will be able to automate this backup process using a bash script and cron then just log in via VPN and download the backup files via SAMBA once a week.

  • Krishanu May 21, 2014, 8:32 pm

    I need to move a date file ( for ex, 22-05-2014.csv) from one folder to another folder in Unix. But the problem is that the file must be dynamic ( for ex, if I have to transfer the file today, the transferred file should look like 22052014.csv, if I transfer it tomorrow, it should look like 23052014.csv and so on).

    I have the basic idea that I have to move the file date +”%d%m%Y”.csv to my destination folder. But not able to do it. Or rather, I do not know how to do it. Please help.

  • comrad May 22, 2014, 4:28 am

    You have to put the date-command in backticks or $(command).

    Then bash executes the command and uses the result to continue.

  • Srikanth May 27, 2014, 4:56 am

    I got what I wanted. Thank you

  • kokane November 19, 2014, 9:49 am

    Great script!

  • notaposter March 13, 2015, 9:51 pm
     NOW=$(date +"%m-%d-%Y")

    does not work in Ubuntu

    • jack March 15, 2015, 10:34 am

      it does work Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. Beside that all distributions got the same binutils….

  • marcus March 17, 2015, 10:53 am

    I want to set a start-date to 2014-01-01
    and then go through the whole year but I can’t figure out how to set the start-date to a specific date. someone kind enough to help? :)

  • Prasanna March 26, 2015, 9:33 am

    Can anyone help me get a script to calculate number of months since a date till current date? Ex: No of months till today from July 2013

  • DJ April 16, 2015, 9:18 am

    I have one variable “ym” such as YearMOnth (201503). I want to reduce it to one month when i pass this parameter through some function and get output as “201502”.

    Can you help me in that

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