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How to check Debian/Ubuntu Linux package version using apt-get/aptitude command

I am a new Debian / Ubuntu Linux sysadmin. I would like to find out what version I would install if I ran the apt-get command. How do I find out which versions of a package can I install using apt-cache/apt-get command? How do you check package version using apt-get/aptitude on Debian or Ubuntu Linux server?
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KVM libvirt assign static guest IP addresses using DHCP on the virtual machine

I am using KVM/libvirt on Linux operating system and how do I assign static IP address using dnsmasq dhcpd server for my default virtual network switch?
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How to copy permissions from one file to another on Linux

I need to copy or clone file ownership and permissions from another file on Linux. Is there a bash command line option to clone the user, group ownership and permissions on a file from another file on Linux operating system?
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How do I secure my Nginx web server with Let’s Encrypt free ssl certificate on my Ubuntu Linux 14.04 LTS or Debian Linux 8.x server?
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How to find out Raspberry Pi GPU and ARM CPU temperature on Linux

I am using a Raspberry PI 2/3 credit size computer. How do I find out my GPU or ARM CPU temperature from Linux operating system command line option?
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How to upgrade OpenSSH 7.0 to 7.2 on a OpenBSD Unix and Linux

OpenSSH version 7.2 has been released. How do I install or upgrade my existing OpenSSH version to 7.2 on a OpenBSD unix operating system?
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How to run a command or script after running apt-get command on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux

How do I run custom command after ‘apt-get upgrade‘ or ‘apt-get dist-upgrade‘ on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux based system? How do I hook a script to apt-get command on my Ubuntu Linux server?
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A stack-based critical buffer overflow was found in the way the libresolv library (glibc) performed dual A/AAAA DNS queries. A remote attacker could crash or, potentially, execute code running the library on Linux. How do I patch and protect my server or workstation against the glibc getaddrinfo on Linux operating system?
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How to reload sysctl.conf variables on Linux

I am new Linux system user. How do I reload all sysctl variables without rebooting my server?
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How to install PHP 7 on Ubuntu Linux 14.04 LTS

PHP 7 provides 2x faster performance and 50% better memory consumption than PHP version 5.6. How do I install PHP 7 on Ubuntu Linux version 14.04 LTS server? How do I install PHP 7 with PHP-FPM in along with Nginx web server?
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