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Turn on telnet server on Debian Linux

Q. How do I install and turn on telnet server on Debian Linux VPS Server?

A. I don't recommend using telnet at all on VPS or any other Linux / UNIX server. Telnet transfers all data including passwords in clear text format. It is recommended that you use ssh which is installed by default.

Use ssh and connect to remote server called boo.myvps.com, enter:
ssh user@boo.myvps.com
ssh root@boo.myvps.com
ssh root@server-ip-address

In case you still need telnet, type the following two commands (not recommended
# apt-get install telnetd
# /etc/init.d/inetd restart
$ telnet server-ip-address

Q. I'd like to save some disk space so I'd like to remove unwanted software from my HP laptop. How do I uninstall software under Ubuntu / Debian Linux?

A. Both Ubuntu and Debian Linux provide command line as well as GUI tools to delete / remove binary packages.

GUI Package Management Tool

synaptic is graphical management tool of software packages. It allows you to perform all actions of the command line tool apt-get in a graphical environment. This includes installing, upgrading, downgrading and removing of single packages or even upgrading your whole system.

Just click on System > Administration > Synaptic Package Manager

Now you can select any package and click on Mark for Removal popup meni. You can also start GUI tool from command line, enter:
$ synaptic &

Command Line Package Management Tool

apt-get is the command-line tool for handling packages. It is used for adding / removing / updating packages.

Uninstall / Delete / Remove Package

Just use the following syntax:
sudo apt-get remove {package-name}

For example remove package called mplayer, enter:
$ sudo apt-get remove mplayer

Remove package called lighttpd along with all configuration files, enter:
$ sudo apt-get --purge remove lighttpd

To list all installed package, enter:\
dpkg --list
dpkg --list | less
dpkg --list | grep -i 'http'

Ubuntu Linux download and install Skype Software

Q. How do I install skype software under Ubuntu / Debian Linux?

A. Skype is proprietary software that allows you to make calls over the Internet using your computer. Skype uses decentralized peer-to-peer technologies, so your calls do not go through a central server, but through distributed servers and other users. It uses its own proprietary communication protocol to achieve this. In addition, all communications are encrypted from end to end so that others cannot listen in. The Skype software is free to use, but it is not free software; the source code is proprietary and not available for modification.

How do I install skype software Repository?

Click on System > Administration > Software Sources
Ubuntu Linux download and install Skype Software

Click on Third Party Software Tab
Ubuntu Linux download and install Skype Software

Click on Add button to add skype Repository:
Type the following APT line:

deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free

Ubuntu Linux download and install skype
Click on Add Source button > Click on Close > Reload button

How do I install skype software?

Open terminal and type the following command:
$ sudo apt-get install skype
Type y when you see following message:

Install these packages without verification [y/N]? y

You can now access skype from Application > Internet menu.

Adding Skype for Linux Repositories From Command Prompt

If you don't want to use above GUI method for Linux repositories, login as the root user. Add this line to the end of your /etc/apt/sources.list file:

deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free

Then run apt-get update to sync to the latest repository and install the latest version of Skype on your computer:
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install skype

Q. Can you explain how to setup network parameters such as IP address, subnet, dhcp etc using /etc/network/interfaces file?

A. /etc/network/interfaces file contains network interface configuration information for the both Ubuntu and Debian Linux. This is where you configure how your system is connected to the network.

Defining physical interfaces such as eth0

Lines beginning with the word "auto" are used to identify the physical interfaces to be brought up when ifup is run with the -a option. (This option is used by the system boot scripts.) Physical interface names should follow the word "auto" on the same line. There can be multiple "auto" stanzas. ifup brings the named inter faces up in the order listed. For example following example setup eth0 (first network interface card) with 192.168.1.5 IP address and gateway (router) to 192.168.1.254:
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.5
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.254

Setup interface to dhcp

To setup eth0 to dhcp, enter:
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

Examples: How to set up interfaces

Please read our previous
How to: Ubuntu Linux convert DHCP network configuration to static IP configuration
for more information.

Following is file located at /usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples/network-interfaces, use this file as reference (don't forget interfaces man pages for more help):

######################################################################
# /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)
#
# A "#" character in the very first column makes the rest of the line
# be ignored. Blank lines are ignored. Lines may be indented freely.
# A "\" character at the very end of the line indicates the next line
# should be treated as a continuation of the current one.
#
# The "pre-up", "up", "down" and "post-down" options are valid for all
# interfaces, and may be specified multiple times. All other options
# may only be specified once.
#
# See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are
# available.
######################################################################
# We always want the loopback interface.
#
# auto lo
# iface lo inet loopback
# An example ethernet card setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet static
#     address 192.168.0.42
#     network 192.168.0.0
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
#     broadcast 192.168.0.255
#     gateway 192.168.0.1
# A more complicated ethernet setup, with a less common netmask, and a downright
# weird broadcast address: (the "up" lines are executed verbatim when the
# interface is brought up, the "down" lines when it's brought down)
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet static
#     address 192.168.1.42
#     network 192.168.1.0
#     netmask 255.255.255.128
#     broadcast 192.168.1.0
#     up route add -net 192.168.1.128 netmask 255.255.255.128 gw 192.168.1.2
#     up route add default gw 192.168.1.200
#     down route del default gw 192.168.1.200
#     down route del -net 192.168.1.128 netmask 255.255.255.128 gw 192.168.1.2
# A more complicated ethernet setup with a single ethernet card with
# two interfaces.
# Note: This happens to work since ifconfig handles it that way, not because
# ifup/down handles the ':' any differently.
# Warning: There is a known bug if you do this, since the state will not
# be properly defined if you try to 'ifdown eth0' when both interfaces
# are up. The ifconfig program will not remove eth0 but it will be
# removed from the interfaces state so you will see it up until you execute:
# 'ifdown eth0:1 ; ifup eth0; ifdown eth0'
# BTW, this is "bug" #193679 (it's not really a bug, it's more of a
# limitation)
#
# auto eth0 eth0:1
# iface eth0 inet static
#     address 192.168.0.100
#     network 192.168.0.0
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
#     broadcast 192.168.0.255
#     gateway 192.168.0.1
# iface eth0:1 inet static
#     address 192.168.0.200
#     network 192.168.0.0
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
# "pre-up" and "post-down" commands are also available. In addition, the
# exit status of these commands are checked, and if any fail, configuration
# (or deconfiguration) is aborted. So:
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet dhcp
#     pre-up [ -f /etc/network/local-network-ok ]
#
# will allow you to only have eth0 brought up when the file
# /etc/network/local-network-ok exists.
# Two ethernet interfaces, one connected to a trusted LAN, the other to
# the untrusted Internet. If their MAC addresses get swapped (because an
# updated kernel uses a different order when probing for network cards,
# say), then they don't get brought up at all.
#
# auto eth0 eth1
# iface eth0 inet static
#     address 192.168.42.1
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
#     pre-up /path/to/check-mac-address.sh eth0 11:22:33:44:55:66
#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/enable-masq
# iface eth1 inet dhcp
#     pre-up /path/to/check-mac-address.sh eth1 AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF
#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/firewall
# Two ethernet interfaces, one connected to a trusted LAN, the other to
# the untrusted Internet, identified by MAC address rather than interface
# name:
#
# auto eth0 eth1
# mapping eth0 eth1
#     script /path/to/get-mac-address.sh
#     map 11:22:33:44:55:66 lan
#     map AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF internet
# iface lan inet static
#     address 192.168.42.1
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/enable-masq $IFACE
# iface internet inet dhcp
#     pre-up /usr/local/sbin/firewall $IFACE
# A PCMCIA interface for a laptop that is used in different locations:
# (note the lack of an "auto" line for any of these)
#
# mapping eth0
#    script /path/to/pcmcia-compat.sh
#    map home,*,*,*                  home
#    map work,*,*,00:11:22:33:44:55  work-wireless
#    map work,*,*,01:12:23:34:45:50  work-static
#
# iface home inet dhcp
# iface work-wireless bootp
# iface work-static static
#     address 10.15.43.23
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
#     gateway 10.15.43.1
#
# Note, this won't work unless you specifically change the file
# /etc/pcmcia/network to look more like:
#
#     if [ -r ./shared ] ; then . ./shared ; else . /etc/pcmcia/shared ; fi
#     get_info $DEVICE
#     case "$ACTION" in
#         'start')
#             /sbin/ifup $DEVICE
#             ;;
#         'stop')
#             /sbin/ifdown $DEVICE
#             ;;
#     esac
#     exit 0
# An alternate way of doing the same thing: (in this case identifying
# where the laptop is is done by configuring the interface as various
# options, and seeing if a computer that is known to be on each particular
# network will respond to pings. The various numbers here need to be chosen
# with a great deal of care.)
#
# mapping eth0
#    script /path/to/ping-places.sh
#    map 192.168.42.254/24 192.168.42.1 home
#    map 10.15.43.254/24 10.15.43.1 work-wireless
#    map 10.15.43.23/24 10.15.43.1 work-static
#
# iface home inet dhcp
# iface work-wireless bootp
# iface work-static static
#     address 10.15.43.23
#     netmask 255.255.255.0
#     gateway 10.15.43.1
#
# Note that the ping-places script requires the iproute package installed,
# and the same changes to /etc/pcmcia/network are required for this as for
# the previous example.
# Set up an interface to read all the traffic on the network. This
# configuration can be useful to setup Network Intrusion Detection
# sensors in 'stealth'-type configuration. This prevents the NIDS
# system to be a direct target in a hostile network since they have
# no IP address on the network. Notice, however, that there have been
# known bugs over time in sensors part of NIDS (for example see
# DSA-297 related to Snort) and remote buffer overflows might even be
# triggered by network packet processing.
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet manual
# 	up ifconfig $IFACE 0.0.0.0 up
#       up ip link set $IFACE promisc on
#       down ip link set $IFACE promisc off
#       down ifconfig $IFACE down
# Set up an interface which will not be allocated an IP address by
# ifupdown but will be configured through external programs. This
# can be useful to setup interfaces configured through other programs,
# like, for example, PPPOE scripts.
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet manual
#       up ifconfig $IFACE 0.0.0.0 up
#       up /usr/local/bin/myconfigscript
#       down ifconfig $IFACE down

Q. I’m running Debian Linux 64 bit server. I’m getting an error which read as follows:
Can't re-open pipe to command substitution (fd 4): No child processes

How do I fix the problem?

A. This error occurs when Linux server run out of open files maximum limit i.e system cannot create or open a new file due to number of open files reached the maximum limits of files.

To solve this problem just configure the system to accept the more open files. Please see previous faq:

Determine / Find ethernet connection speed

Q. How do I determine my Ethernet connection speed under Debian Linux 4.0 server?

A. You need to use ethtool command todisplay or change ethernet card settings. It is used for querying settings of an ethernet device such as
=> Link speed

=> Autonegotiation

=> Coalescing settings

=> Change the rx/tx ring parameters

=> Setup new speed and much more

Most intelligent network devices use an autonegotiation protocol to communicate what media technologies they support, and then select the
fastest mutually supported media technology.

How do I determine ethernet connection speed?

Type the following command to get speed for eth0:
$ ethtool eth0 | less
OR
$ ethtool eth0 | grep -i speed

I am using an Apache web server and PHP 5 server-side scripting language to produce dynamic web pages for our corporate website. How do I install install php gd support on an Apache/PHP5 for dynamically manipulating images under Ubuntu Linux LTS?
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