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human readable format

I have a large number of files stored in ~/Downloads/ directory. How do I sort and print sizes in human readable format using du -h command under Ubuntu Linux LTS version 12.04 or any other Linux distributions?
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Linux Find Out CPU Architecture Information

How do I find out my CPU architecture information under Linux operating systems?
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I want to add more RAM to my server running Ubuntu Linux. How do I find out my current RAM chip information such as its speed, type and manufacturer name within a Linux system without opening the case?
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I need to get a list of sizes in human readable du output format. How do I get the output for du command in GB under Linux or UNIX operating systems?
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The rndc stats commands created /var/named/chroot/var/named/data/named_stats.txt file under RHEL 5.x or CentOS 5.x BIND 9 server. However, date is not is correct format. The date is in the following format:
grep 'Dump' /var/named/chroot/var/named/data/named_stats.txt
outputs:

+++ Statistics Dump +++ (1263408025)
--- Statistics Dump --- (1263408025)
+++ Statistics Dump +++ (1263408071)
--- Statistics Dump --- (1263408071)
+++ Statistics Dump +++ (1268304218)
--- Statistics Dump --- (1268304218)
+++ Statistics Dump +++ (1268304248)
--- Statistics Dump --- (1268304248)

How do I convert date (e.g., 1263408025) in a human readable format?
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Shell Scripting: Check File Size ( Find File Size )

How do I find out file size under UNIX / Linux operating system and store the same to a variable called s?
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Q. I need to find file permission and store the same to a shell variable. How do I find out the file permission without parsing ls -l output?

A. Use GNU stat command to display file or file system status. It has option to display output in specific format.

Display stat for /etc/passwd file

Type the following command:
$ stat /etc/passwd
Output:

  File: `/etc/passwd'
  Size: 1675            Blocks: 8          IO Block: 4096   regular file
Device: 802h/2050d      Inode: 7899368     Links: 1
Access: (0644/-rw-r--r--)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root)
Access: 2007-12-05 08:20:31.000000000 +0530
Modify: 2007-12-04 23:36:50.000000000 +0530
Change: 2007-12-04 23:36:50.000000000 +0530

Print access rights in octal format:
$ stat -c %a /etc/passwd
Output:

644

Print access rights in human readable format, enter:
$ stat -c %A /etc/passwd
Output:

-rw-r--r--

Store access rights in octal format to a shell variable:
$ VAR=$(stat -c %a /etc/passwd)
$ echo $VAR

Other valid format sequences for files

  • %b : Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
  • %B : The size in bytes of each block reported
  • %d : Device number in decimal
  • %C : SELinux security context
  • %D : Device number in hex
  • %f : Raw mode in hex
  • %F : File type
  • %g : Group ID of owner
  • %G : Group name of owner
  • %h : Number of hard links
  • %i : Inode number
  • %n : File name
  • %N : Quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link
  • %o : I/O block size
  • %s : Total size, in bytes
  • %t : Major device type in hex
  • %T : Minor device type in hex
  • %u : User ID of owner
  • %U : User name of owner
  • %x : Time of last access
  • %X : Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
  • %y : Time of last modification
  • %Y : Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
  • %z : Time of last change
  • %Z : Time of last change as seconds since Epoch