man command

I am a new Unix / Linux user. I am using whatis command to find man pages. But, I noticed that some man pages have a common names. For example, when I run whatis printf:


printf (1) - format and print data
printf (1p) - write formatted output
printf (3) - formatted output conversion
printf (3p) - print formatted output
printf [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1)

How do I access overlapping man pages and what is the meaning of (1), (1p), (3), and so on?

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I have a man page stored in my home directory called ~/foo.1. How do I read a $HOME/foo.1 man page file? How can I read the file called ~/foo.1 as a manpage with man command?

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