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operating systems

How do I reverse lines of a file or files under Linux or Unix like operating systems?
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Bash Shell Script To Test For Empty Folder

How do I check if a directory contains files? How do I find out if a directory contains files using bash shell under Linux or Unix like operating systems?
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Linux / Unix: Generate A MD5 String

I need to generate a md5 hash for given string. It will be used by shell script to generate keys for remote web service or cryptographic application. How do I generate a md5 hash based on any input string under Linux or Unix like operating systems?
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Linux / Unix: Find Inode Of a File Command

How do I find out an inode (index-node) of a file under Unix like operating systems?
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I'm writing a shell script for automation purpose. The output the path of the current working directory is stored in $PWD or it can be obtained using the pwd command. How do I find out find out 3rd field separated by the forward slash (/) delimiter using $PWD under Unix like operating systems?
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Bash Shell: Check File Exists or Not

How do I test existence of a text file in bash running under Unix like operating systems?
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How can I iterate bash for loop using a variable range of numbers in Unix or Linux or BSD or Apple OS X operating systems?
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