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Q. I am new to Linux and I not able to understand /dev/hdc (is it C: drive?) under Linux. This is quite confusing for a new Linux user like me. What device naming convention followed by Linux? Can you explain it in layman's term?
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Q. I am using Linux on HP server and I am getting error that read as follows:
Linux Kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs

How do I solve this problem?

A. Most modern distributions including Debian uses loadable kernel module for ext3 file system. So to read ext3/ext2 file system kernel must load ext3 kernel module (ext3.ko).

This module is included in an initrd image. If an initrd image is missing or that image does not include suitable kernel modules to access the ext3 filesystem on the partition, an error message (Linux Kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs) will be displayed to you.

To solve this problem you need to use mkinitrd script that constructs a directory structure that can serve as an initrd root file system.

The instructions for creating initrd images are here on our site.

You need to use command called lsdev. It gathers information about your computer's installed hardware from the interrupts, ioports and dma files in the /proc directory, thus giving you a quick overview of which hardware uses what I/O addresses and what IRQ and DMA channels.

This command is very useful while troubleshooting various hardware conflict problems.

Task display : CPU Information

$ cat /proc/cpuinfo

Task: Display Free and used Memory Information

$ free -m

Task: Display partition information

# fdisk -l

Task: Display file system disk space usage

# df -H
OR
# df -h

Task: Estimate file space usage

# du

Task: List PCI devices

# lspci

Task: List USB devices

# lsusb

Task display : More Information

$ lsdev

Output:

Device            DMA   IRQ  I/O Ports
------------------------------------------------
0000:00:1d.0                 d800-d81f
0000:00:1d.1                 d000-d01f
0000:00:1d.2                 d400-d41f
0000:00:1f.0                 4000-407f 4080-40bf
0000:00:1f.1                 f000-f00f
0000:00:1f.3                 5000-501f
0000:00:1f.5                 e000-e0ff e400-e43f
0000:01:05.0                   c000-c0ff
8139too                          c000-c0ff
acpi                      9
bttv0                    22
cascade             4
dma                          0080-008f
dma1                         0000-001f
dma2                         00c0-00df
ehci_hcd:usb4            20
eth0                     18
fpu                          00f0-00ff
GPE0_BLK                       4028-402f
i8042                  1 12
ICH4                     21
ide0                     14  01f0-01f7 03f6-03f6   f000-f007
ide1                     15  0170-0177 0376-0376   f008-f00f
Intel                          e000-e0ff   e400-e43f
keyboard                     0060-006f
parport0                  7  0378-037a
PCI                          0cf8-0cff c000-cfff
pic1                         0020-0021
pic2                         00a0-00a1
PM1a_CNT_BLK                   4004-4005
PM1a_EVT_BLK                   4000-4003
PM_TMR                         4008-400b
rtc                       8  0070-0077
serial                       02f8-02ff 03f8-03ff
timer                     0
timer0                       0040-0043
timer1                       0050-0053
uhci_hcd                       d000-d01f   d400-d41f   d800-d81f
uhci_hcd:usb1            16
uhci_hcd:usb2            19
uhci_hcd:usb3            17
vga+                         03c0-03df

See also: