printf command

I am a new Unix user. I have Debian Linux installed. I need to append text to a file called daily.log. How do I use the cat command to append data to a file?


I have a number stored in a shell variable called x=”240570.578″. I would like to print $x as 2,40,570.57. How do I replace the number with their currency format under bash shell scripts?


I‘m a new Unix user. How do I create a file from bash prompt without using GUI tools? How to create a file in Unix from terminal window? What’s the easiest and best way to create a file in Unix?


id command

I am a new Linux and Unix system user. How do I find out the user and groups names and numeric IDs of the current user or any users on my server? How can I display and effective IDs on the system using command line options? In Linux, how do I find a user’s UID or GID?


Bash shell is used for various purposes under Linux. How do I customize the shell environment variable under Linux operating systems?


How do I get the current date in Unix or Linux shell scripting and store it into a shell variable? How do I print the current date using Unix shell script?

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How do I convert from octal to hex number using bc UNIX / Linux command line utility?