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Remote Shutdown of a Linux / Unix Computer From MS-Windows

How do I shutdown remote Linux or UNIX system from MS-Windows system?
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HowTo Install firefox-4.0.tar.bz2 in Linux

How do I install latest Firefox version 4.0 in Linux operating systems?
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Mac OS x Restart Apache Web Server

How do I restart Apache web server under Mac OS X operating systems?
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Ubuntu Linux: OpenSSH Change Welcome Login Message

How do I change Openssh welcome login message under Ubuntu Linux?
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FreeBSD Install gnupg Cryptographic Software

Q. How do I install gnugp security Cryptographic software on my FreeBSD 6.x server from a shell prompt over ssh session?
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Howto: Update firefox on Linux

Q. My Firefox version is and I'd like to update the same to latest version. How do I upgrade my Firefox on Linux?

A. You can easily upgrade firefox on Linux.

Please note that installing Firefox 2 will overwrite your existing installation of Firefox. You won't lose any of your bookmarks or browsing history, but some of your extensions and other add-ons might not work until updates for them are made available.

Update Firefox on Ubuntu / Debian Linux

You can use APT package handling utility i.e. apt-get command. You can also use a GUI package tool called Update Manager:
Just type the following two commands at terminal:
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install firefox

You can also use GUI tool: Click on System > Administration > Update Manger > Click on Check button see for updates

Update Firefox on Fedora / Redhat / CentOS Linux

Use yum tool or gui tool for the same purpose:
# yum update
# yum update firefox

Update firefox from official Mozilla site

You can download firefox from official website. Just follow these firefox installation instructions.

Debian / Ubuntu Linux Setting a Default Gateway

Q. How do I setup a default gateway on Debian or Ubuntu Linux? My router IP is and I'd like to setup this as a default gateway for Debian Linux.

A. You can use command line tool such as
a] ip command - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels

b] route command - show / manipulate the IP routing table

c] Save routing information to a configuration file so that after reboot you get same default gateway.

ip command to set a default router to

Login as the root and type:
# ip route add default via
$ sudo ip route add default via

route command to set a default router to

Login as the root and type:
# route add default gw
$ sudo route add default gw

Save routing information to a configuration file /etc/network/interfaces

Open /etc/network/interfaces file
# vi /etc/network/interfaces
$ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
Find eth0 or desired network interface and add following option
Save and close the file. Restart networking:
# /etc/init.d/networking restart
$ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

Ubuntu Linux OpenSSH Server installation and configuration

Q. I have just installed Ubuntu 6.06 and I would like to allow remote login to my system from home via ssh. How do I install and configure SSH server?

A. OpenSSH is a FREE version of the SSH connectivity tools that technical users of the Internet rely on. Users of telnet, rlogin, and ftp may not realize that their password is transmitted across the Internet unencrypted, but it is. OpenSSH encrypts all traffic (including passwords) to effectively eliminate eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other attacks. Additionally, OpenSSH provides secure tunneling capabilities and several authentication methods, and supports all SSH protocol versions.

Ubuntu SSHD Installation

Type the following two command to install both ssh client and server:
# sudo apt-get install openssh-server openssh-client

SSHD Configuration

To be frank your server is ready by default. Just test it from your home computer or from same system with the command:
# ssh localhost
# ssh user@your-server-ip-address

How do I use ssh client?

Assuming that your server hostname is userver.mydomain.com and username is vivek, you need to type the following command:
# ssh vivek@userver.mydomain.com
To stop ssh server, enter:
# sudo /etc/init.d/ssh stop
To start sshs server, enter:
# sudo /etc/init.d/ssh start
To restart ssh server, enter:
# sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

See also: