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Linux / UNIX: Software Update Vs Upgrade – What’s the Difference?

What the differences between a Linux or UNIX software update and an upgrade? How do I perform the both?
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SUSE Linux: Install RPM File And Packages

Suse Linux is similar to RPM based Linux distro such as RHEL but does not comes with yum command. How do I install a rpm file or packages such as Apache or PHP under Suse Enterprise / OpenSuse Linux?
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Linux bnx2: eth1: No interrupt was generated using MSI, switching to INTx mode

Q. I see following message in my logs files:

Linux bnx2: eth1: No interrupt was generated using MSI, switching to INTx mode

My server hangs occasionally after rebooting with above message in /var/log/message. How do I get rid of this problem under CentOS Linux / RHEL version 4.x?
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Linux: ifdown eth0:0 brings down all other virtual network interfaces

Q. Why do the other virtual network interfaces go down when I bring down eth0:0 under CentOS Linux?
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Linux Virtual Network Interfaces Go Down When I bring Down eth0:0

Q. My RHEL / CentOS Linux 4.x virtual network interfaces go down when I bring down eth0:0. How do I fix this issue?
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RHEL 4: Find up2date command module / library dependencies

Q. I'm using RHEL 4.x as database server. How can I run the up2date command to find out what package will satisfy library / module dependencies via RHN?

A.Update Agent provides a complete system for updating the RPM packages installed on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. Both command line and graphical interfaces are included.

Update Agent has a quite a few configuration options, including but not limited to: installing packages after they are downloaded; downloading source RPMs along with binary RPMs; whether or not to upgrade packages where the default configuration file(s) have been modified, and more.

--whatprovides=<dependencies> option

Use the following syntax to query the RHN servers to resolve the comma separated list of dependencies. It will return a list of packages that will satisfy these dependencies:

up2date --whatprovides=<dependencies>

For example, if an error read as follows:

error: failed dependencies:
      libxyz.so    is needed by httpd
      libabc.so.1  is needed by httpd

To find out all libs or module dependencies in any of the package, enter:
# up2date --whatprovides=libxyz.so,libabc.so.1


Now just install packagename-1.15:
# up2date packagename

Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) install ImageMagick RPM for manipulating images

Q. How do I install ImageMagick software under Redhat enterprise Linux version 4 update 5?

A. ImageMagick is an image display and manipulation tool for the X Window System. ImageMagick can read and write JPEG, TIFF, PNM, GIF, and Photo CD image formats. It can resize, rotate, sharpen, color reduce, or add special effects to an image, and when finished you can either save the completed work in the original format or a different
one. ImageMagick also includes command line programs for creating animated or transparent .gifs, creating composite images, creating thumbnail images, and more.

ImageMagick is one of your choices if you need a program to manipulate and display images. If you want to develop your own applications which use ImageMagick code or APIs, you need to install ImageMagick-devel as well.

INSTALL ImageMagick

Use up2date command to install ImageMagick, enter ( <= RHEL 4 only): # up2date install ImageMagick
OR use yum if you are using Fedora Core/CentOS/RHEL 5:
# yum install ImageMagick

Essential ImageMagick Hacks/Tips/Faqs...

Now use ImageMagick from command line or GUI:

up2date command to update Redhat enterprise Linux (RHEL) howto

Q. How do I use up2date command to update Redhat enterprise Linux server via RHN?

A. For Redhat enterprise Linux operating systems, you need to get updates from RHN via Redhat Network Satellite/proxy servers (usually used by big hosting/ISPs or larget RHEL installation setups) to install critical and non-critical security updates as well as binary packages.

Task: Register my system with RHN

To register your system with RHN type the following command and just follow on screen instructions:

# up2date --register

WARNING! These examples only works with RHEL version 2.x, 3.x and 4.x only. RHEL version 5.x comes with yum utility to update and install packages.

Task: Display list of updated software (security fix)

Type the following command at shell prompt:# up2date -l

Task: Patch up system by applying all updates

To download all update type the following command:# up2date -u

Task: Forcefully update or patching

Sometime you need to forcefully apply updates. By default RHN does not install new kernel, so you need to run updates using following command:# up2date -uf

Task: Install new software/rpm

Use up2date command to install new RPM from RHN:# up2date httpd

Task: Update installed software

To fix latest bugs or to apply a patch use up2date command as follows for php package:# up2date php

Task: Download source RPM files

Download source packages only but don't install:# up2date -d --src Package-Name

Task: Display the list of available packages

# up2date --showall
# up2date --showall | grep httpd

Task: Install particular architecture package

If you are using 64 bit RHEL version it is possible to install 32 packages:# up2date --arch=i386 mysql

Above command will install mysql 32 bit version instead of 64 bit version.

Task: Display what package provides the file

You can easily find out what RPM package provides the file. For example find out what provides the /etc/passwd file:# up2date --whatprovides "/etc/passwd"Output:


It queries the RHN servers to resolve the comma separated list of dependencies. It will return a list of packages that will satisfy these dependencies.

Task: Display list of group software

Option --show-groups displays all the component groups that are installable via up2date command. This is good to install entire set of software such as development environment.
# up2date --show-groupsOutput:

Administration Tools
Arabic Support
Assamese Support
Authoring and Publishing
GNOME Desktop Environment
GNOME Software Development
Games and Entertainment
Windows File Server
Workstation Common
X Software Development
X Window System

To install group X Software Development just type the command:
# up2date -i "@ X Software Development "

Read man page of up2date command for more information:
man up2date

PHP not connecting to a MySQL database server

Q. I have Apache Web server and MySQL configured. Everything works fine except I am not able to connect to a MySQL database server (I am able to connect mysql server with mysql client). So how do I configure or connect PHP scripts?

A. You need to install MySQL module for php4 or php5. Without php-mysql shared object or module, php scripts won't able to connect to MySQL database server.

Debian / Ubuntu Linux User

To install type the following command:
# apt-get install php4-mysql
if you are using PHP5, enter:
# apt-get install php5-mysql

RHEL <= 4 user

If you are using Red Hat Linux:
# up2date php-mysql

If you are using Fedora / CentOS / RHEL 5 Linux:
# yum install php-mysql
Restart apache to take effect. Now you will be able to connect MySQL via PHP scripts.
# service httpd restart