What is a shell variables? How do I define and use a variable under korn shell?
A variable is nothing but a symbolic name associated with a value and whose associated value may be changed.
Variables is used by the Korn shell to store values. Setting variables within a script or at a shell prompt is pretty simple. Define a variable called IP and BASE as follows:
To display variable, use:
echo $IP echo $BASE
Rules For Naming Korn Shell Variables
- Korn shell variable names can begin with an alphabetic (a–Z) or underscore character.
- Other variable names that contain only digits (0–9) or special characters (!, @, #, %, *, ?, $) are reserved for special parameters set directly by the Korn shell.
How Do I Create a Null Variable?
Simply use the following syntax:
If a value is not given, the variable is set to null.
Common Shell Variable Examples
Set backup directory path:
Store date and time:
Set file path
A Sample Shell Script Using Variables
#!/bin/ksh NOW=$(date) DNSCONF="/etc/resolv.conf" SERVERNAME=$(hostname) OS=$(uname) echo "Your OS : $OS" echo "Server Name : $SERVERNAME" echo "Current date and time : $NOW" echo "Client DNS Config file - $DNSCONF" echo "----------------------" cat $DNSCONF
Use typeset to define variable attributes. Some common examples:
Set the type of variable to be integer
typeset -i x=10 typeset -i y=10 typeset -i z=$(( $x + $y )) echo "$x + $y = $z"
Set the type of variable to be float
typeset -F PI=3.14 echo $PI
You can also use it as follows:
typeset -F3 PI=3.14159 echo $PI
How Do I Store Command Output To a Variable?
Variables can be assigned command output using the following format:
For e.g. store hostname to a variable called HOST, enter:
HOST=`hostname` echo $HOST
How Do I Define Read Only Variable?
Set the readonly attribute using typeset command:
typeset -r BASE=/iscsi
If you try to make change, you will be greeted with an error message:
ksh: BASE: is read only
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