April 2006

Under Linux password related utilities and config file(s) comes from shadow password suite. The /etc/login.defs file defines the site-specific configuration for this suite. This file is a readable text file, each line of the file describing one configuration parameter. The lines consist of a configuration name and value, separated by whitespace. You need to set […]


Recently one of our clients mail server was getting lots email message from unknown users which was causing some trouble so I decided to route all mail to unknown users (for verification ) to a single mail account. This server use sendmail MTA. Sendmail has option called LUSER_RELAY. Open Sendmail configuration file sendmail.mc using text […]


Netcraft reports that Apache is now the leader in SSL Server too. Apache now runs on 44.0% of secure web sites, compared to 43.8% for Microsoft. Apache has taken much longer to reach the top because version 1.0 did not include SSL at all due to US export control laws and the patent on the […]


If you are using Linux based laptop at an office or a home, then you may need to configure your Linux system for different network environments. In good old days, I had couple of shell scripts to change network settings. However, you may find small nifty utility called netenv very useful. When booting your laptop […]

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Sometime it is necessary to reboot (or shutdown) windows server. Under UNIX or Linux you can use reboot / hal t/shutdown command via cron jobs or at command. But, when it comes to Windows server there is no built in command exist. Only Windows 2000 Resource Kit offers shutdown command line utility. However, sysinternals has […]


SSH, server has feature called X11Forwarding. It specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted or not. You need to set this parameter to yes. Once this is enabled, you will be able to run a graphical application on server and get applications display (window) on your desktop. Server setup For example, login on Linux/BSD system called […]