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Important: Openssl Security Update [CVE-2008-5077]

Linux / BSD and UNIX like operating systems includes software from the OpenSSL Project. The OpenSSL is commercial-grade, industry-strength, full-featured Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as general purpose cryptography library.

The Google security team discovered a flaw in the way OpenSSL checked the verification of certificates. An attacker in control of a malicious server, or able to effect a "man in the middle" attack, could present a malformed SSL/TLS signature from a certificate chain to a vulnerable client and bypass validation.

This update has been rated as having important security impact on FreeBSD, all version of Ubuntu / Debian, Red Hat (RHEL), CentOS, Fedora and other open source operating system that depends upon OpenSSL.
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BIND Named: Set a Zone Transfer IP Address For Master DNS Server

I've three nameserver load-balanced (LB) in three geo locations. Each LB has a front end public IP address and two backend IP address (one for BIND and another for zone transfer) are assigned to actual bind 9 server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2 as follows:

LB1 - -> Master BIND 9.x
LB2 -  -> Slave BIND 9.x
LB3 - -> Slave BIND 9.x

So when a zone transfer initiates from slave server, all I get following errors in master BIND 9 server (LB1):

Jan  1 14:11:20 ns1 named[5323]: client 75.54.xx.xx#50968: zone transfer 'example.com/AXFR/IN' denied
Jan  1 14:11:20 ns1 named[5323]: client 75.54.xx.xx#54359: zone transfer 'example.org/AXFR/IN' denied

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XEN Virtualization Set The MTU For xenbr0 Interface

I've already written about setting the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) under Linux including Jumbo frames (FreeBSD specific MTU information is here).

With this quick tip you can increase MTU size to get a better networking performance.
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Apache2 mod_fastcgi: Connect to External PHP via UNIX Socket or TCP/IP Port

Now, mod_fastcgi is configured and running. FastCGI supports connection via UNIX sockets or TCP/IP networking. This is useful to spread load among various backends. For example, php will be severed from and python / ruby on rails will be severed from This is only possible with mod_fastcgi.
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Linux: Boot a 2TB+ partition or Larger Array Using Grub

I've already written about creating a partition size larger than 2TB under Linux using GNU parted command with GPT. In this tutorial, I will provide instructions for booting to a flat 2TB or larger RAID array under Linux using the GRUB boot loader.
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Download Fedora 10 CD / DVD ISO

Fedora Linux version 10 has been released and available for download ( jump to download link ). Fedora Linux is a community-based Linux distribution. Fedora is sponsored by Red Hat, Inc.

One of Fedora's main objectives is not only to contain free and open source software, but also to be on the leading edge of such technologies.

Fedora 10, codenamed "Cambridge", was released on November 25, 2008. The features include a web-based package installer similar to Linux Mint's, a faster startup using Plymouth instead of Red Hat Graphical Boot, better webcam support, GNOME 2.24, KDE 4.1, RPM 4.6 and many other features

What's new in Fedora 10

The following are major features for Fedora 10:

  1. Wireless connection sharing enables ad hoc network sharing
  2. Better setup and use of printers through improved management tools
  3. Virtualization storage provisioning for local and remote connections now simplified
  4. SecTool is a new security audit and intrusion detection system
  5. RPM 4.6 is a major update to the powerful, flexible software management libraries
  6. Glitch free audio and better performance is achieved through a rewrite of the PulseAudio sound server to use timer-based audio scheduling
  7. Improved webcam support
  8. Better support for infrared remote controls makes them easier to connect and work with many applications
  9. The paths /usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin have been added to the PATH for normal users, to simplify command-line administration tasks
  10. The online account service provides applications with credentials for online accounts listed on http://online.gnome.org
  11. See complete list feature list here

Fedora Linux 10 Desktop

Fedora Linux 10 Desktop

Fedora 10 Download

You can download Fedora Linux 10 via the web/ftp server or via BitTorrent (recommended).

32 bit vs 64 bit version

  • For almost all PCs select 32 bit version. For e.g., most machines with Intel/AMD/etc type processors
  • Choose 64 bit version to take full advantage of computers based on the AMD64 or EM64T architecture (e.g., Athlon64, Opteron, EM64T Xeon, Core 2).

Fedora 10 DVD ISO download

Fedora download: Fedora 10 CD ISO download

There are total 6 ISO images:

Fedora Linux 10 DVD ISO BitTorrent download

Download images from the following mirror:

Fedora 10 DVD ISO BitTorrent download

Fedora 10 Live CD Download

This is the latest version of the Fedora Linux operating system featuring the GNOME desktop. It's everything you need to try out Fedora—and if you like it, install it right from the desktop!

See also:

See Fedora 10 Upgrade how to.

Fedora Linux 10 Download Mirrors

fold: Wrap Text File / Line / Words To Fit in Specified Width

fold is really nifty command line utility to make a text file word wrap. This is useful for large number of text files processing. There is no need to write a perl / python code or use a word processor.

fold command syntax

fold -sw {COUNT} {input.txt} > {output.txt}

Wrap input lines in each input.txt, writing to standard output.txt.


  • -s: break at spaces
  • -w: {COUNT} use COUN} as WIDTH columns instead of default 80.

For example, following command will wrap input.txt at 60 width columns:
$ fold -sw 60 input.txt > output.txt

A large number of files can be processed using for shell loop:

for i in *.txt
  fold -sw 65 $i > $i.output