20 Linux Server Hardening Security Tips

by on October 30, 2009 · 125 comments· LAST UPDATED January 25, 2014

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Securing your Linux server is important to protect your data, intellectual property, and time, from the hands of crackers (hackers). The system administrator is responsible for security Linux box. In this first part of a Linux server security series, I will provide 20 hardening tips for default installation of Linux system.

Linux Server Hardening Checklist and Tips

The following instructions assume that you are using CentOS/RHEL or Ubuntu/Debian based Linux distribution.

#1: Encrypt Data Communication

All data transmitted over a network is open to monitoring. Encrypt transmitted data whenever possible with password or using keys / certificates.

  1. Use scp, ssh, rsync, or sftp for file transfer. You can also mount remote server file system or your own home directory using special sshfs and fuse tools.
  2. GnuPG allows to encrypt and sign your data and communication, features a versatile key managment system as well as access modules for all kind of public key directories.
  3. Fugu is a graphical frontend to the commandline Secure File Transfer application (SFTP). SFTP is similar to FTP, but unlike FTP, the entire session is encrypted, meaning no passwords are sent in cleartext form, and is thus much less vulnerable to third-party interception. Another option is FileZilla - a cross-platform client that supports FTP, FTP over SSL/TLS (FTPS), and SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).
  4. OpenVPN is a cost-effective, lightweight SSL VPN.
  5. Lighttpd SSL (Secure Server Layer) Https Configuration And Installation
  6. Apache SSL (Secure Server Layer) Https (mod_ssl) Configuration And Installation

#1.1: Avoid Using FTP, Telnet, And Rlogin / Rsh Services

Under most network configurations, user names, passwords, FTP / telnet / rsh commands and transferred files can be captured by anyone on the same network using a packet sniffer. The common solution to this problem is to use either OpenSSH , SFTP, or FTPS (FTP over SSL), which adds SSL or TLS encryption to FTP. Type the following command to delete NIS, rsh and other outdated service:
# yum erase inetd xinetd ypserv tftp-server telnet-server rsh-serve

#2: Minimize Software to Minimize Vulnerability

Do you really need all sort of web services installed? Avoid installing unnecessary software to avoid vulnerabilities in software. Use the RPM package manager such as yum or apt-get and/or dpkg to review all installed set of software packages on a system. Delete all unwanted packages.
# yum list installed
# yum list packageName
# yum remove packageName

# dpkg --list
# dpkg --info packageName
# apt-get remove packageName

#3: One Network Service Per System or VM Instance

Run different network services on separate servers or VM instance. This limits the number of other services that can be compromised. For example, if an attacker able to successfully exploit a software such as Apache flow, he / she will get an access to entire server including other services such as MySQL, e-mail server and so on. See how to install Virtualization software:

#4: Keep Linux Kernel and Software Up to Date

Applying security patches is an important part of maintaining Linux server. Linux provides all necessary tools to keep your system updated, and also allows for easy upgrades between versions. All security update should be reviewed and applied as soon as possible. Again, use the RPM package manager such as yum and/or apt-get and/or dpkg to apply all security updates.
# yum update
# apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
You can configure Red hat / CentOS / Fedora Linux to send yum package update notification via email. Another option is to apply all security updates via a cron job. Under Debian / Ubuntu Linux you can use apticron to send security notifications.

#5: Use Linux Security Extensions

Linux comes with various security patches which can be used to guard against misconfigured or compromised programs. If possible use SELinux and other Linux security extensions to enforce limitations on network and other programs. For example, SELinux provides a variety of security policies for Linux kernel.

#5.1: SELinux

I strongly recommend using SELinux which provides a flexible Mandatory Access Control (MAC). Under standard Linux Discretionary Access Control (DAC), an application or process running as a user (UID or SUID) has the user's permissions to objects such as files, sockets, and other processes. Running a MAC kernel protects the system from malicious or flawed applications that can damage or destroy the system. See the official Redhat documentation which explains SELinux configuration.

#6: User Accounts and Strong Password Policy

Use the useradd / usermod commands to create and maintain user accounts. Make sure you have a good and strong password policy. For example, a good password includes at least 8 characters long and mixture of alphabets, number, special character, upper & lower alphabets etc. Most important pick a password you can remember. Use tools such as "John the ripper" to find out weak users passwords on your server. Configure pam_cracklib.so to enforce the password policy.

#6.1: Password Aging

The chage command changes the number of days between password changes and the date of the last password change. This information is used by the system to determine when a user must change his/her password. The /etc/login.defs file defines the site-specific configuration for the shadow password suite including password aging configuration. To disable password aging, enter:
chage -M 99999 userName
To get password expiration information, enter:
chage -l userName
Finally, you can also edit the /etc/shadow file in the following fields:



  1. Minimum_days: The minimum number of days required between password changes i.e. the number of days left before the user is allowed to change his/her password.
  2. Maximum_days: The maximum number of days the password is valid (after that user is forced to change his/her password).
  3. Warn : The number of days before password is to expire that user is warned that his/her password must be changed.
  4. Expire : Days since Jan 1, 1970 that account is disabled i.e. an absolute date specifying when the login may no longer be used.

I recommend chage command instead of editing the /etc/shadow by hand:
# chage -M 60 -m 7 -W 7 userName
Recommend readings:

#6.2: Restricting Use of Previous Passwords

You can prevent all users from using or reuse same old passwords under Linux. The pam_unix module parameter remember can be used to configure the number of previous passwords that cannot be reused.

#6.3: Locking User Accounts After Login Failures

Under Linux you can use the faillog command to display faillog records or to set login failure limits. faillog formats the contents of the failure log from /var/log/faillog database / log file. It also can be used for maintains failure counters and limits.To see failed login attempts, enter:
To unlock an account after login failures, run:
faillog -r -u userName
Note you can use passwd command to lock and unlock accounts:
# lock account
passwd -l userName
# unlocak account
passwd -u userName

#6.4: How Do I Verify No Accounts Have Empty Passwords?

Type the following command
# awk -F: '($2 == "") {print}' /etc/shadow
Lock all empty password accounts:
# passwd -l accountName

#6.5: Make Sure No Non-Root Accounts Have UID Set To 0

Only root account have UID 0 with full permissions to access the system. Type the following command to display all accounts with UID set to 0:
# awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd
You should only see one line as follows:


If you see other lines, delete them or make sure other accounts are authorized by you to use UID 0.

#7: Disable root Login

Never ever login as root user. You should use sudo to execute root level commands as and when required. sudo does greatly enhances the security of the system without sharing root password with other users and admins. sudo provides simple auditing and tracking features too.

#8: Physical Server Security

You must protect Linux servers physical console access. Configure the BIOS and disable the booting from external devices such as DVDs / CDs / USB pen. Set BIOS and grub boot loader password to protect these settings. All production boxes must be locked in IDCs (Internet Data Center) and all persons must pass some sort of security checks before accessing your server. See also:

#9: Disable Unwanted Services

Disable all unnecessary services and daemons (services that runs in the background). You need to remove all unwanted services from the system start-up. Type the following command to list all services which are started at boot time in run level # 3:
# chkconfig --list | grep '3:on'
To disable service, enter:
# service serviceName stop
# chkconfig serviceName off

#9.1: Find Listening Network Ports

Use the following command to list all open ports and associated programs:
netstat -tulpn
nmap -sT -O localhost
nmap -sT -O server.example.com

Use iptables to close open ports or stop all unwanted network services using above service and chkconfig commands.

#9.2: See Also

#10: Delete X Windows

X Windows on server is not required. There is no reason to run X Windows on your dedicated mail and Apache web server. You can disable and remove X Windows to improve server security and performance. Edit /etc/inittab and set run level to 3. Finally, remove X Windows system, enter:
# yum groupremove "X Window System"

#11: Configure Iptables and TCPWrappers

Iptables is a user space application program that allows you to configure the firewall (Netfilter) provided by the Linux kernel. Use firewall to filter out traffic and allow only necessary traffic. Also use the TCPWrappers a host-based networking ACL system to filter network access to Internet. You can prevent many denial of service attacks with the help of Iptables:

#12: Linux Kernel /etc/sysctl.conf Hardening

/etc/sysctl.conf file is used to configure kernel parameters at runtime. Linux reads and applies settings from /etc/sysctl.conf at boot time. Sample /etc/sysctl.conf:

# Turn on execshield
# Enable IP spoofing protection
# Disable IP source routing
# Ignoring broadcasts request
# Make sure spoofed packets get logged
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1

#13: Separate Disk Partitions

Separation of the operating system files from user files may result into a better and secure system. Make sure the following filesystems are mounted on separate partitions:

  • /usr
  • /home
  • /var and /var/tmp
  • /tmp

Create separate partitions for Apache and FTP server roots. Edit /etc/fstab file and make sure you add the following configuration options:

  1. noexec - Do not set execution of any binaries on this partition (prevents execution of binaries but allows scripts).
  2. nodev - Do not allow character or special devices on this partition (prevents use of device files such as zero, sda etc).
  3. nosuid - Do not set SUID/SGID access on this partition (prevent the setuid bit).

Sample /etc/fstab entry to to limit user access on /dev/sda5 (ftp server root directory):

/dev/sda5  /ftpdata          ext3    defaults,nosuid,nodev,noexec 1 2

#13.1: Disk Quotas

Make sure disk quota is enabled for all users. To implement disk quotas, use the following steps:

  1. Enable quotas per file system by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
  2. Remount the file system(s).
  3. Create the quota database files and generate the disk usage table.
  4. Assign quota policies.
  5. See implementing disk quotas tutorial for further details.

#14: Turn Off IPv6

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) provides a new Internet layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite that replaces Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and provides many benefits. Currently there are no good tools out which are able to check a system over network for IPv6 security issues. Most Linux distro began enabling IPv6 protocol by default. Crackers can send bad traffic via IPv6 as most admins are not monitoring it. Unless network configuration requires it, disable IPv6 or configure Linux IPv6 firewall:

#15: Disable Unwanted SUID and SGID Binaries

All SUID/SGID bits enabled file can be misused when the SUID/SGID executable has a security problem or bug. All local or remote user can use such file. It is a good idea to find all such files. Use the find command as follows:
#See all set user id files:
find / -perm +4000
# See all group id files
find / -perm +2000
# Or combine both in a single command
find / \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -print
find / -path -prune -o -type f -perm +6000 -ls

You need to investigate each reported file. See reported file man page for further details.

#15.1: World-Writable Files

Anyone can modify world-writable file resulting into a security issue. Use the following command to find all world writable and sticky bits set files:
find /dir -xdev -type d \( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) -print
You need to investigate each reported file and either set correct user and group permission or remove it.

#15.2: Noowner Files

Files not owned by any user or group can pose a security problem. Just find them with the following command which do not belong to a valid user and a valid group
find /dir -xdev \( -nouser -o -nogroup \) -print
You need to investigate each reported file and either assign it to an appropriate user and group or remove it.

#16: Use A Centralized Authentication Service

Without a centralized authentication system, user auth data becomes inconsistent, which may lead into out-of-date credentials and forgotten accounts which should have been deleted in first place. A centralized authentication service allows you maintaining central control over Linux / UNIX account and authentication data. You can keep auth data synchronized between servers. Do not use the NIS service for centralized authentication. Use OpenLDAP for clients and servers.

#16.1: Kerberos

Kerberos performs authentication as a trusted third party authentication service by using cryptographic shared secret under the assumption that packets traveling along the insecure network can be read, modified, and inserted. Kerberos builds on symmetric-key cryptography and requires a key distribution center. You can make remote login, remote copy, secure inter-system file copying and other high-risk tasks safer and more controllable using Kerberos. So, when users authenticate to network services using Kerberos, unauthorized users attempting to gather passwords by monitoring network traffic are effectively thwarted. See how to setup and use Kerberos.

#17: Logging and Auditing

You need to configure logging and auditing to collect all hacking and cracking attempts. By default syslog stores data in /var/log/ directory. This is also useful to find out software misconfiguration which may open your system to various attacks. See the following logging related articles:

  1. Linux log file locations.
  2. How to send logs to a remote loghost.
  3. How do I rotate log files?.
  4. man pages syslogd, syslog.conf and logrotate.

#17.1: Monitor Suspicious Log Messages With Logwatch / Logcheck

Read your logs using logwatch or logcheck. These tools make your log reading life easier. You get detailed reporting on unusual items in syslog via email. A sample syslog report:

 ################### Logwatch 7.3 (03/24/06) ####################
        Processing Initiated: Fri Oct 30 04:02:03 2009
        Date Range Processed: yesterday
                              ( 2009-Oct-29 )
                              Period is day.
      Detail Level of Output: 0
              Type of Output: unformatted
           Logfiles for Host: www-52.nixcraft.net.in
 --------------------- Named Begin ------------------------
 **Unmatched Entries**
    general: info: zone XXXXXX.com/IN: Transfer started.: 3 Time(s)
    general: info: zone XXXXXX.com/IN: refresh: retry limit for master ttttttttttttttttttt#53 exceeded (source ::#0): 3 Time(s)
    general: info: zone XXXXXX.com/IN: Transfer started.: 4 Time(s)
    general: info: zone XXXXXX.com/IN: refresh: retry limit for master ttttttttttttttttttt#53 exceeded (source ::#0): 4 Time(s)
 ---------------------- Named End -------------------------
  --------------------- iptables firewall Begin ------------------------
 Logged 87 packets on interface eth0
   From 58.y.xxx.ww - 1 packet to tcp(8080)
   From 59.www.zzz.yyy - 1 packet to tcp(22)
   From 60.32.nnn.yyy - 2 packets to tcp(45633)
   From 222.xxx.ttt.zz - 5 packets to tcp(8000,8080,8800)
 ---------------------- iptables firewall End -------------------------
 --------------------- SSHD Begin ------------------------
 Users logging in through sshd:
       123.xxx.ttt.zzz: 6 times
 ---------------------- SSHD End -------------------------
 --------------------- Disk Space Begin ------------------------
 Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/sda3             450G  185G  241G  44% /
 /dev/sda1              99M   35M   60M  37% /boot
 ---------------------- Disk Space End -------------------------
 ###################### Logwatch End #########################

(Note output is truncated)

#17.2: System Accounting with auditd

The auditd is provided for system auditing. It is responsible for writing audit records to the disk. During startup, the rules in /etc/audit.rules are read by this daemon. You can open /etc/audit.rules file and make changes such as setup audit file log location and other option. With auditd you can answers the following questions:

  1. System startup and shutdown events (reboot / halt).
  2. Date and time of the event.
  3. User respoisble for the event (such as trying to access /path/to/topsecret.dat file).
  4. Type of event (edit, access, delete, write, update file & commands).
  5. Success or failure of the event.
  6. Records events that Modify date and time.
  7. Find out who made changes to modify the system's network settings.
  8. Record events that modify user/group information.
  9. See who made changes to a file etc.

See our quick tutorial which explains enabling and using the auditd service.

#18: Secure OpenSSH Server

The SSH protocol is recommended for remote login and remote file transfer. However, ssh is open to many attacks. See how to secure OpenSSH server:

#19: Install And Use Intrusion Detection System

A network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is an intrusion detection system that tries to detect malicious activity such as denial of service attacks, port scans or even attempts to crack into computers by monitoring network traffic.

It is a good practice to deploy any integrity checking software before system goes online in a production environment. If possible install AIDE software before the system is connected to any network. AIDE is a host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) it can monitor and analyses the internals of a computing system.

Snort is a software for intrusion detection which is capable of performing packet logging and real-time traffic analysis on IP networks.

#20: Protecting Files, Directories and Email

Linux offers excellent protections against unauthorized data access. File permissions and MAC prevent unauthorized access from accessing data. However, permissions set by the Linux are irrelevant if an attacker has physical access to a computer and can simply move the computer's hard drive to another system to copy and analyze the sensitive data. You can easily protect files, and partitons under Linux using the following tools:

#20.1: Securing Email Servers

You can use SSL certificates and gpg keys to secure email communication on both server and client computers:

Other Recommendation:

Recommend readings:

  1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux - Security Guide.
  2. Linux security cookbook- A good collections of security recipes for new Linux admin.
  3. Snort 2.1 Intrusion Detection, Second Edition - Good introduction to Snort and Intrusion detection under Linux.
  4. Hardening Linux - Hardening Linux identifies many of the risks of running Linux hosts and applications and provides practical examples and methods to minimize those risks.
  5. Linux Security HOWTO.

In the next part of this series I will discuss how to secure specific applications (such as Proxy, Mail, LAMP, Database) and a few other security tools. Did I miss something? Please add your favorite system security tool or tip in the comments.

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{ 125 comments… read them below or add one }

1 Lego October 30, 2009 at 10:36 am

Excellent article! Thanks for posting this.


2 veeru January 8, 2012 at 2:17 pm

how to configure LDAP server(server side, client side) in UBUNTU linux plese tell me step by step


3 Robert January 14, 2012 at 4:21 am


Google is your friend. I found the above link in less than 30 seconds. We Linux geeks like to be helpful. Most will tell you how to hunt, but most won’t hunt for you, cook for you, and feed you too. :)


4 Liju October 30, 2009 at 11:21 am

Great article.

Really wroth……


5 Data7 October 30, 2009 at 12:16 pm

Very useful indeed. Thanks a lot!


6 Dapxin October 30, 2009 at 12:26 pm

great post. One for the bookmarks….:)


7 Suresh October 30, 2009 at 1:31 pm

Great one sir! Thanks a lot


8 surendra kumar anne October 30, 2009 at 1:38 pm

Though i am an active user in your forum, i never posted a comment on your blog.. but this post really tempted me to comment.
the post really rocks man.. Most of the things new to me..
Thanks for sharing.


9 Ben October 30, 2009 at 2:31 pm

#10 – Disable X-Windows. I think you meant to say edit /etc/inittab and set to run level 3 not 5.


10 Andrew Ensley October 30, 2009 at 3:03 pm

Great article! Thanks for sharing! Bookmarked and Dugg.


11 nixCraft October 30, 2009 at 3:12 pm


It was a typo on my part. Runlevel 5 is for X and 3 is text based full network mode under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora etc.


12 Ivan Nemeth October 30, 2009 at 4:47 pm

bookmarked immediately, thank you


13 Toby October 30, 2009 at 5:25 pm

I’m not surprised that SSH is #1, but I am a little puzzled that there’s no mention of key-only authentication… or denyhosts, if password access is a requirement.

I’m personally skeptical about password aging – strength requirements are important, but strong passwords don’t get weaker over time.


14 nixCraft October 30, 2009 at 5:39 pm

Please see (#18 SSH ) – a direct link Top 20 OpenSSH Server Best Security Practices.


15 JIS October 30, 2009 at 7:04 pm

I usually don’t comment on blogs, but this post deserves it…great article! Thank you for sharing….


16 robo October 30, 2009 at 7:10 pm

this is life saver for sysadmins ;) thanks for sharing,


17 Theodoros Goumenidis October 30, 2009 at 7:56 pm

Your articles always have something special to read. Thanks for sharing.


18 luc_rom October 30, 2009 at 8:12 pm

Great work as always Vivek.


19 dave October 30, 2009 at 10:05 pm

I actually stronglt disagree with 6.1 and 6.2. 6.2 Especially. Here’s why (from experience as an IT manager)..

Suppose you put 6.0 (which I agree with), 6.1, and 6.2 in place and set the age of a password for 30 days. Then the user is forced to learn a new password. After another 30 days they are forced to change but by this time the user is starting to forget the passwords because they are changing and can not reuse an old one.

So, Mr User writes it on a sticky note and puts it where he can read it, right on his monitor.

See where I’m going with this? This will happen time and time again which creates more of a compromise to security and defeats the purpose.


20 neolix October 30, 2009 at 11:45 pm

GR8 keep posting


21 d0wnund3r01 October 31, 2009 at 12:45 am

This is awesome, thanks for posting this for us newbies.
Sorry for my stupid question in advance:
Q: if I remove Xwindows. can I still VNC and get an Xwindows display ?


22 Alfa October 31, 2009 at 3:48 am

Sir, how to remove / disable “Linux Single” ?

nice post (articles)….


23 P Saint Amour October 31, 2009 at 3:56 am

I mention so many times to clients that they should set up and use SELinux in mission critical secure situations and they constantly ignore it.
It should be used without question in installations where you want and need an extremely hardened system.


24 Antiks October 31, 2009 at 4:37 am

Wait….I thought Linux was secure by default?


25 Antiks October 31, 2009 at 9:11 am

Wait….I thought Linux was secure by default?
Oops…forgot to say great post! Looking forward to your next one.


26 Solaris October 31, 2009 at 1:54 pm

I don’t agree with disabling ipv6. The switch must be done and ipv6 has been pretty well
tested until now, chances that some bad traffic will cause a buffer overflow is very low.


27 Someone in time October 31, 2009 at 4:47 pm

Excelent post…
Thanks for share your knowledge…


28 hideaki November 1, 2009 at 11:47 pm

I see someone’s trying to be smart again. Not so much.
#1.1 Removing xinetd would disable my git:// offering.
#3 Hilarious amount of work that only makes sense if you run a corp with load
#10 Almost impossible with many distros due to interdependencies (dbus-1-glib, anyone!?)
#12 Do not forget to set vm.vdso_enabled=1 (some distros still have it at 2, which is only the compat mode)
#13 And leads to “oops, now your partition is full”. Been there done that, threw it out. Only /home remains separate.
#14 PEBKAC is not a justification to turn it off.
#20 Truecrypt is a joke (has its own crypto implemention, its own VFAT implementation, and is limited to VFAT even) when you have dm-crypt at hand which has: a well-tested-and-known crypto impl, can use all the well-tested filesystems Linux offers, etc.


29 sreeraj.K.G November 2, 2009 at 9:55 am

This article great one and very useful for all sysadmins.One again gr8 article.



30 John November 2, 2009 at 2:09 pm

>#1.1 Removing xinetd would disable my git:// offering.
Use your common sense and keep required services.
>#3 Hilarious amount of work that only makes sense if you run a corp with load
Not really, how hard is to run xen under Linux?
>#10 Almost impossible with many distros due to interdependencies (dbus-1-glib, anyone!?)
Really? You run X windows on all servers? You are just wasting your resources.
>#12 Do not forget to set vm.vdso_enabled=1 (some distros still have it at 2, which is only the compat mode)
I do not see vm.vdso_enabled under CentOS, may be it is part of latest kernel or 3rd party.
>#13 And leads to “oops, now your partition is full”. Been there done that, threw it out. Only /home remains separate.
You need to use LVM2.
#20 Truecrypt is a joke (has its own crypto implemention, its own VFAT implementation, and is limited to VFAT even) when you have dm-crypt at hand which has: a well-tested-and-known crypto impl, can use all the well-tested filesystems Linux offers, etc.
Agreed. I never used Truecrypt, but Wikipedia pages gives pretty good information about security.


31 chris j November 2, 2009 at 2:15 pm

I disagree with the #7 disable root login. I agree that root logins should be disabled for things like ssh, forcing users to login using their credentials. Howerver I think sudo makes a box less secure. If an account gets compromised and they have sudo access for root level work, all the attacker has to do is type sudo whatever and away they go.

With having requiring them to su to root, you’re adding defense in depth. They might compromise bob’s account, but now they have to work harder to get into root.

I think sudo is great for 1 off commands but as a hardening system it leaves a lot to be desired.


32 TransTux November 2, 2009 at 3:16 pm

Lots of good information on hardening Linux. How about /etc/security/limits.conf and friends to control other security aspects of the Linux?


33 chris j November 2, 2009 at 3:51 pm

to clarify sudo is great for one off commands on personal computers, but not that great for production servers.


34 hideaki November 2, 2009 at 5:45 pm

John wrote:
>Not really, how hard is to run xen under Linux?
For real? It’s harder than running vmware, vbox, qemu/kvm. Because for a start you need an appropriate xen kernel.


35 Ricardo November 3, 2009 at 12:11 am

Perfect! Congratulations,

Friend, you always give greats articles to all we! Your article, it has been very important to i can build a more secure system!

I am from Brazil, and i am student in the Science Computer! But, your level of knowledge is very high!

Good luck with your site!


Ricardo Costa


36 Jose November 3, 2009 at 2:51 pm

Lots of good stuff, Thank you so much!


37 Gokul November 3, 2009 at 7:43 pm

Thank you for your tips :)
I made a script to harden server and install all necessary things using all of you good guys advise.

Grateful :)



38 bcwoods1 November 4, 2009 at 7:06 pm

I’ve heard both sides of the root login/su debate. Personally I don’t like using sudo. I generally use set up a rather long root password and change it every other month or so. I agree with chris j that it adds another layer especially if you set up ssh etc correctly to disable root logins and such. Of course, I don’t run any large servers so my experience most likely isn’t as large as some of the posters here.


39 grimr34per November 6, 2009 at 12:07 am

hideaki wrote:
>John wrote:
>>Not really, how hard is to run xen under Linux?
>For real? It’s harder than running vmware, vbox, qemu/kvm. Because for a start you need >an appropriate xen kernel.
Oh, come on. With Debian or CentOS you need max 5 minutes to have Dom0 + DomU functional (and you don’t even have to know what you are doing, there is a zillion howto’s on the web)


40 Anshell November 7, 2009 at 4:53 am

Great Article!! :)


41 snappy November 7, 2009 at 10:40 pm

Most of these tips are pretty much ubiquitous. Secure passwords (e.g. those found outside of hacker dictionaries), and mod_security or something similar for your webserver are truly key. When confronted with a linux/UNIX machine, hackers will first try to penetrate among common username/passwords and scan for vulnerabilities in common web applications. Prevent it before it occurs. If you can, setup public-key auth for all SSH related crap. If you’re using lighttpd, look for mod_security like rules.

Anyways, one cannot implement all since each environment is different. Also surprised to not see a file intrusion detection system up. Also, securing your machine isn’t enough, you want to keep at least daily backups. If you host your server and become a victim of being hacked. Don’t expect it to stop there, they will use your machine as a zombie/bot to attack other machines. The ISP will shut your machine down, and you will have even a difficult time getting back to your data. Make backups frequently and off-site. Data is truly of value, the machine it runs on isn’t.

Just my 2c.


42 Espen November 9, 2009 at 11:37 am

Thanks for a great post.


43 Denis November 19, 2009 at 12:27 pm

OVZkernel RHEL

[root@server etc]# sysctl -p
error: “net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_messages” is an unknown key
Why unknown key?


44 nixCraft November 19, 2009 at 2:46 pm

OVZkernel share kernel with its host and other vps operating systems. So you will not able to use all MIBs or iptables features.


45 Stefano November 22, 2009 at 4:10 pm

As usual, thanks!!


46 K.K. November 29, 2009 at 7:50 am

It’s gr8..
Thx 4 sharing..


47 Praful December 11, 2009 at 5:29 am

Thanks for sharing tips for linux ……… Thanks Mr. Vivek Gite


48 prabaas December 14, 2009 at 4:14 am

thanks a lot linux guru …………………..great info……………..thanks guru…………..


49 tux4fun December 20, 2009 at 12:40 pm

Thanks for the mass of information!


50 Vincent January 15, 2010 at 10:03 am

Thanks alot for UBER tips…. Thanks Mr. Vivek, from Nixcraft to Cyberciti you keep them coming.


51 Vincent January 15, 2010 at 10:04 am

Any tips on FAQs on SNMP. Baby steps please..


52 Ruben January 17, 2010 at 5:25 pm

Not very useful for real production servers. Real servers (like the dozens I work with) are administered by 1-2 people accessing directly as root from local network (that includes vpn access), not from the internet side. No need to eat your brain thinking and thinking about sudo, passwords, blah blah. Ah, btw… automatic updates can only break your working system :) The rest, is just common sense. You can’t learn linux only by applying rules you read on a web page… you learn linux after years, and maybe only then.


53 Ahmed hassan elzebair January 25, 2010 at 9:39 am

I do appreciate the effort that has been done to present this informative topic
please do inform me via e-mail regardig such security issues.
Many thanks
Eng. ahmed


54 Abdul February 7, 2010 at 11:35 am

gr8 job yaar


55 mrf February 10, 2010 at 12:24 pm

wow this is heaven for me he3x :) thx mr vivek


56 thyag February 19, 2010 at 7:05 pm

fantastic work!…maximum info with minimum words…great!!


57 cyvan February 26, 2010 at 6:29 am

Whatever happened to Bastille Linux. Doesn’t seem to be maintained anymore.


58 Andre April 25, 2010 at 10:12 pm

Wow! Awesome website!
Keep the tips coming, I am learning lots of good sys admin here.


59 Pradeep Singh April 30, 2010 at 3:48 am

Could we have a post here for step by step configuration of LDAP (Centralized Authentication Service). And the usage.


60 bharath May 25, 2010 at 11:14 pm

really gud info…..Thanxz to the postings……


61 vanni linux June 9, 2010 at 10:11 am

Thanks for giving this …


62 Abdullah June 16, 2010 at 7:21 am

I would choose to install grsecurity:http://grsecurity.net/download.php linux kernel patch anytime over “SELinux”
because it have much more paranoid-security options that would make SElinux look like a baby toy,


63 a_m_y June 17, 2010 at 2:50 pm

Cool! It will help a lot, especially to novice linux users that will make them look expert, as well as for newbies. Thanks so much!! More power!


64 edvard June 21, 2010 at 3:54 pm

Excellent article, however with the need for IPv6 fast approaching, telling users to disable it is like telling us to bury our heads in the sand.
I’ve seen this advice all over the internet, and it will very soon be not such a good idea.
I would suggest that instead of telling users to disable IPv6, let’s start learning about it, creating tools to deal with it and get our hands dirty using it.


65 Dave June 30, 2010 at 11:05 pm

@Ruben. Even if you only can access SSH from your lan, you should still disable root login. Just login using your own SSH key and become root (su). Also limit the users that can become root (wheel users). So before someone can login root, he (or she) first have to crack two user accounts. But disable root login helps also with the physical security.

About some other points. Passwords should not expire if you enforce strong passwords. The trouble is that users can only remember only so many passwords, so if thay have to change password frequently, they’re gonna use the same password at other places.

In 2002 I had to strengthen the security for an e-commerce company. They kept the clear customer passwords in a database. You wouldn’t believe how many email logins and passwords work. BTW: Passwords should be stored as hashes. Sending an email with a link to change the password is not different from a email that shows you the passwords. However, a comprised database is dangerous. If I wanted it to, I could have read a lot of emails and collect even more sensitive data like registration mails from websites that show you your password..

SE-Linux should be a standard installed with every Linux distribution. It makes it a bit harder to exploits bugs in code. That’s also valuable on workstations. Most companies only secure the front door. If you break a window, you can go anywhere in the building. Hack a workstation and often you can access everything within the LAN.

IPv6 should be disabled if you don’t have an IPv6 IP or services. If you have, you have to secure just like you secure an IPv4 network. I already use IPv6 within every LAN I install. The main router (gateway) has an IPv6 bridge to my data center (which is IPv6 enabled) and from there they can connect to both IPv6 networks or IPv4 networks.


66 norg July 20, 2010 at 10:34 am

There is a slight wording mistake in #1: Encrypt Data Communication, section 3 “Fugu is a graphical frontend to the commandline Secure File Transfer application (SFTP)”. The acronym SFTP is misleading. SFTP is the “SSH file transfer protocol”, “Secure FTP” is something very different (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FTP_over_SSH#FTP_over_SSH_.28not_SFTP.29). Secure FTP encrypts only the control channel , the data channel stays unencrypted.


67 Charlie Brown July 23, 2010 at 2:55 am

SFTP is not the SSH file transfer… Whuuat??


Two different animals dude.. Authur had it right..

It kills me how many people get their info “facts” from wiki…
Man.. doesn’t anyone watch CNN? wiki is poo.. not accurate.. it is user-defined.. users make mistakes… SFTP is NOT SSH… Agghhh!! (Charlie Brown Scream…)


68 A G33k July 23, 2010 at 2:43 am

ANswer.. Get rid of the end user and hire someone who can remember a password..
Best practice is 60 or 90 day, 14 characters minimum, and complexity requiring minimum of – 1 upper, 1 lower, 1 alpha, 1 symbol, 1 numeric.
Remember password history..

Is it convienent? No… DO passwords get weaker with time? YEs..

Why because exploits move forward every day as do caps.. Each day a password remains static, is one more oppertunity given to comprimise your system security and capture user information…
The problem w/ user passwords is that SO many users, use bank info, pins, etc…

Its a best practice… As yourself this.. If you are sued.. yes.. lawsuit.. What will you tell the prosecuting atty. when he asks if you used complexity requirements and changes on passwords?

All the attorney of the guy suing you has to prove is negligence.. Because so many passwords have been compromised.. you not enforcing it could be cionsidered negligence and could be a fatal loss to the suit..

Not saying it is right or easy.. But it’s best practice and it will help keep you and your company (did I mention you) out of a bind if legal issues arise…


69 Navneet Gaur August 13, 2010 at 11:46 am

Really a very good and concise article that is informative and addresses various security issues.
Very well written.
Thank you for writing and posting this article.


70 JohnnyO August 27, 2010 at 9:18 pm

Well written! Wow. Great great great article!


71 jeffatrackaid September 8, 2010 at 2:26 am

Nice round up of some common server hardening techniques. While not specific to the server, I would add having a web application firewall, e.g. mod security or something similar. According to SANS, most exploits these days happen via web applications. Even with these tips (SELinux excepted), attackers can often setup shell kits, spam bots or similar tools.

Also, never just rely on the hardening. Using something like Nessus to audit the server. With a professional feed, you can actually audit against a variety of policies, such as the Center for Internet Security guidelines.


72 Liya Comp September 16, 2010 at 3:17 pm

Good article


73 jef October 14, 2010 at 12:28 am

just what i was looking for. thanks for the info.
treat gout


74 Eric Gillette October 15, 2010 at 8:27 pm

Wow! This is an amazing article. Lots of things about securing a server that I either overlooked, or simply forgot about! You rock! =0)


75 Hello November 8, 2010 at 11:29 am

@A G33k
If you get rid of the end user who cannot remember password, you will fire 99% of people in your company. Not a very good idea? Everybody are using yellow stickers, excel files etc. There is so many passwords to rember, most of for absolutely pointless accounts, which nobody cares.


76 Abhijit November 24, 2010 at 3:45 pm

Really nice article. Also, i really the comments too.
Good luck for your future.


77 JR December 26, 2010 at 3:08 pm

Tried #12 Kernel/sysctl hardening, but ‘sysctl -p’ comes up with “error: ‘kernel.exec-shield’ is unknown key” on Ubuntu 10.04.1 LTS as well as Mint 9 KDE. Any ideas?


78 Francisco January 21, 2011 at 2:30 pm

There are several things that should be added:

* For ssh disable password authentication, using public keys (on authorized_keys) is safer.

* Don’t disable IPv6, learn about it, use it, promote it.

* Limit the maximum number of connections with a firewall, using iptables and ip6tables.


79 Satish January 27, 2011 at 11:55 am

Great Article very help full for Unix admins..


80 Hasib February 7, 2011 at 7:54 pm

Great site. Always find it useful in times of need.


81 Juan February 11, 2011 at 9:17 pm

I reviewed the comments and nobody seems to be bothered by one little fact… Hackers are not Crackers… It’s kinda disappointing to read such a “confusion” on a Unix dedicated site. Not only it is not a confusion, but it is “clarified”, openly associating and presenting the word “cracker” as a synonym for “Hacker”.

Please educate yourself: http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html


82 Shadus February 22, 2011 at 8:19 pm

Sudo is crap for security period except leaving an audit trail… which any user with sudo access can get rid of trivially. Lets say you have 5 admins each who needs root level access. With sudo that means each user’s password is another potential compromise of root level privileges. There are things you can do to help with that like using rootpw or disabling the ability to get a true shell with sudo but this breaks much of sudos functionality. Sudo is very good at offering a false sense of security and accountability of LEGITIMATE users. It does very little for non-legitimate users.


83 Christopher Quinn March 5, 2011 at 4:47 am

perfect. I was searching how to disable the root access. I love this site. I can’t believe I didn’t find it sooner. I switched from shared web hosting to vps web hosting and I love it.



84 DSpider March 24, 2011 at 12:53 am

Well, Christopher… I think if, God forbid, the user account is compromised then you can simply login as root and delete it, along with it’s ~/ directory. But if you disable root access… I guess you’d have to reinstall the OS.

Also, setting the “noexec” flag in fstab is a very smart move. Especially for data partitions (why would you wanna run binaries from a data partition anyway ? Programs should have no business there). I thought this flag also applied for scripts. Hmmm….


85 Ramakrishna- krrish April 29, 2011 at 12:39 pm

Hi Sir, Am fan to your article.. Really these are very excellent sessions.. we never get this from any other books.. Really Am so happy and we are improving our confidential levels by following your articles.. One small request, Why dont you keep an article on Solaris server issues.. Because now a days, both unix and linux are growing popular across the world.. And so many administrators are working in dual modes (LINUX and UNIX) . So, if the send an article based on linux and unix(solaris) then, so many administrators feel much better..



86 Ramakrishna - Krrish April 30, 2011 at 5:03 am

Hi Sir,

I have been trying to implement OpenLDAP server in CentOS5.4 for the past 10 months. But, till i haven’t implemented. I studied and gathered so many books and articles.. even though am not succeeded. So, could you send openldap server configuration article in CentOS5. Then i can follow your help to complete the task..And i need exactly what is ldap ? why for Ldap? where to Implement ldap ?
I have so many doubts are there on ldap scenario. And how can join windows client to linux openldap server ? . If joins, how to do that ? .. So, could you explain detailedly…

with best regards..


Ramakrishna – krrish


87 d0rk-E May 28, 2011 at 8:56 pm

I have heard the arguments for and against #7, disable root login, and am for it…
But you never tell me HOW to. :D


88 ckdie92hc8899s9 July 20, 2011 at 7:31 pm

WARNING to fellow DEBIAN users:

debian apt-get may break system if cannot use /tmp. Tmp may be set noexec, nosuid, etc.
To harden, may need to write pre-process script and post-process scriipt after
apt-get upgrade.

alert: re”: Also, setting the “noexec” flag in fstab
not confirmed and demonstrated and fully tested. sorry.

Linux hostnamm 2.6.39-3.slh.xxx-aptosid-xxx64 #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Jul xxx 2011 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Great article. Advanced persistent threats and rootkits. Kernel is the last line
of defense.

obviously, strategy involves both HARDENING and SOFTENING. example of softening
is honeypot and other ‘trap doors.’ Basic – set your firefox or google chrome to
send browser message as IE Internet Explorer.

Excellent Article. Intermediate. Highest return on value is getting to known
how to tune the KERNEL. Second highest is learning how to compress data and
‘backup it up’ across the wide spread NET. as well as separate physical devices -
SSD preferred.


89 Ashok July 24, 2011 at 5:57 am

Fantastic Article !! Very useful one.


90 justme19 August 6, 2011 at 3:51 pm

Just another one of those valuable well written article. Thank you vivek for sharing this with the rest of us.


91 michael anderson August 20, 2011 at 1:53 am

Is this hardening checklist good for ALL Linux distributions, such as CentOS, Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, etc………



92 venkat September 6, 2011 at 12:54 pm

Great work Vivek sir ji…



93 iasava September 12, 2011 at 10:43 am

thank for sharing. it the best best practice for me. thank you very much Vivek


94 Rajasekhar October 14, 2011 at 4:44 am



95 renjith October 19, 2011 at 5:54 am

Thanks for the gr8 info.

need to know which file we need to edit or how we can set password rules in redhat such as “password should include alphanumeric,special characters,numbers etc.



96 Sankar M November 12, 2011 at 5:32 am

Good work!! Thanks a million for all useful tips.. :)


97 layer 3 switch November 19, 2011 at 12:35 pm

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98 Lamont Granquist December 2, 2011 at 9:21 pm

You need to triage your recommendations for how much they cost to do (in terms of time):

Sites with thousands of servers and understaffed admins can’t possibly do all of this, and even on smaller sites with only a few dozen boxes, there needs to be some focus on which of these offer the best bang for the amount of time spent.

You must do these:

#1: Encryption – This is good, but the suggestion to remove xinetd wholesale is generally bad, ideally use chef to only enable xinetd where needed.
#3: One service one box – This is a good goal, much more achievable in the virtualization era. Exceptions can be made, particularly with lightweight internal services.
#6: Password policy – Largely you have to do this, auditors expect it. I share the concerns about rotation leading to sickies on monitors, but I know I won’t win that argument with auditors.
#7: Disable root login – Yes, remote root needs to be disabled to prevent non-reputability, I actually agree here.
#9: Disable services – Very good. Do this. Highly likely that unneeded and unmaintained services lead to actual security compromise.
#10: Disable X11 – Yep, unneeded on servers generally, don’t install. Some software installation requires it, which is annoying and you’ll need to make exceptions for on limited case-by-case basis.
#11: Sysctl hardening – Good and reasonably cheap. Use chef.
#15: Disable unwanted SUIDs and SGIDs – I agree, time well spent, reduces attack surface.
#17: Logging and Auditing – Past some point this just becomes using a loghost with enough disk to retain logs, and the noise level becomes insane. I wouldn’t spend too much time watching all the logs all the time, although its nice if you’ve got a junior admin with enough free time to watch for events. In PCI situations you have to not only watch this, but respond and it becomes mandatory.

You should try to do these, but they’re costly:

#4: Kernel upgrades – This is expensive in time, but worthwhile.
#11: Iptables/TCPwrappers – If #9 is done correctly and you’ve got a good corporate border firewall, this is not necessary and can lead to headaches. This is almost in my “do not bother” list, but if you *dont* have a firewall and you’ve just got servers hanging out in the breeze on EC2 this becomes more necessary.
#16: Centralized Auth – I actually like spending the time to do Kerberos

Do not bother with these, your energy is best spent elsewhere:

#2: Removing/auditing RPMs – This became laughable to me a decade ago, nearly a complete waste of time.
#5: SElinux – Also largely a waste of time, and ongoing maintenance nightmare, most actual intrusions would be prevented by getting easier stuff right
#8: Locking down BIOS and Grub – Servers should be secure in datacenters, physical access means a compromise anyway and grub passwords get in the way of administration
#13: Seperate Partitions for Everything – Oh, FFS, I have a job to do. Complete waste of my time.
#14: Turn off IPv6 – this is laughable and becoming more indefensible now
#19: IDS – Also mostly a source of noise. I suggest using fail2ban to automate iptables blocking in response to attacks, which does something useful (e.g. ssh attacks actually chew up your cpu, and fail2ban gets that back).
#20: Encryption of files – largely a waste of time within the enterprise, other than *very* targetted systems that are high-value targets. Just get your account management right.

Most important completely missed aspect:


And yes, I wrote that in all CAPS for a reason. That should be policy #0 that comes before all else.


99 Kishor December 9, 2011 at 7:18 pm

Excellent article!


100 Matteo "roghan" Cappelli December 21, 2011 at 3:10 pm

Very good article!! :-D


101 nbasileu January 11, 2012 at 1:38 pm

7. Nginx SSL

Thx to add this :)


102 bash_coder January 22, 2012 at 8:49 pm

Well , one forgot about 8080 , port needed in some apps like ISPConfig or whatever.
Having ssh server enabled , we can disable 8080 via port forwarding in router, but use a ” backdoor ” aka tunnelling needed ports through ssh :
ssh -D localhost:8080 user@domain.com.
Put firefox using socksV5 and voila ! , of course ,port number can vary !
Let Mysql as default to listen only ,enforce apache with mod_security and mod_evasive,check website folders not to be 777,and if using wordpress look for a good firewall or go write yourself a decent one to prevent sql injection.
And keep it in mind ,everything made by humans will be cracked by humans , it is just a matter of time !

Sincerly , Gabriel


103 Arun March 13, 2012 at 2:43 pm

Great thanks a lot…


104 adhishesh May 17, 2012 at 1:01 pm

One more thing we need to consider as a security treat, some softwares have default UserID and Password like phpmyadmin and other softwares, after installation of this kind of software’s we need to take care of userID and Password.


105 saroj kumar sahu May 18, 2012 at 6:16 pm

Hello Dear,

Thanks a lot for your work and information to all of us…..
Thanks u boss………


106 kc May 27, 2012 at 12:12 am

Don’t forget fail2ban


107 satya August 2, 2012 at 10:24 am

very useful information, thankful to u for sharing this information


108 leon August 5, 2012 at 9:25 am

thanks for your valueable comments


109 hhalat August 10, 2012 at 2:40 am

Very very very very usefull info. It help me a lot. Many thanks to you


110 Shyam yeduru August 28, 2012 at 2:51 pm

Really nice glance on linux securities..


111 Remesh September 5, 2012 at 2:35 pm

Thanks a lot. Its very useful.


112 John Airey September 21, 2012 at 9:04 am

What about setting up a catch-all mailbox for all the root email on your servers? root’s email does not normally get read on a lot of sites. Reading one mailbox is better than logging into every server to check status.


113 CounterSpace September 21, 2012 at 5:54 pm

I love you, Vivek. You save me everytime I have issues or questions. You make me look like an elite linux user and server admin. Thank you so much for your hard work and please do keep on keeping on.

All the best!


114 Mickael Monsieur October 11, 2012 at 12:27 pm

Don’t forget GRSec patch for Kernel, mod_security for Apache and suhosin patch for PHP.


115 Santosh Bhabal January 16, 2013 at 7:24 am

Gr8 post.
Many thanks to uploader.


116 Rahul krishnan February 18, 2013 at 12:08 pm

Thanks for the mass of information!


117 Jason March 25, 2013 at 4:36 am

Great read! Thanks for taking the time to put this out there.


118 Ravi July 18, 2013 at 11:27 am

Everything in one place and so neat…Thanks for sharing such a useful info…Thanks in tons….


119 Ozjon July 20, 2013 at 6:45 am

Hey thanks for writing up an article on securing server. Today I had a lot of hacking on my vps server and I couldn’t access any of the sites. Anyway, I had to go in and kill apache via ssh and had to switch it off for 12 hours until the hacking went away. I later realised that my wordpress sites were getting a whacked via the login path.

Your article is great – thanks for sharing.


120 Mohammad Forhad Iftekher August 1, 2013 at 6:19 pm

+1, very handy

Systems Administrator
Disney Interactive


121 suresh September 16, 2013 at 9:18 am


Great Article… :)



122 James October 16, 2013 at 4:11 pm

Thanks I needed this for a new server project that we have..

Great post!


123 Sepahrad Salour March 18, 2014 at 5:53 am

Thanks for your great article :)
I really love your website…


124 Muhasa Ivans Enock April 28, 2014 at 1:34 pm

Great Info, I will now apply it on my new project file Server.


125 Cody July 26, 2014 at 1:14 pm

#13 is especially important when you consider the flaws of chroot (and any error that allows a user to chroot that is not root).

I seem to remember that /var (which yes, /var should be its own volume) and /var/tmp should be separate. More specifically, /tmp should be its own volume and /var/tmp should be a symbolic link to /tmp

But I’ll leave that to each administrator … (I know there is something about this subject though but I cannot remember exactly what it is about/for. It is a complete manual about security issues, from RedHat …, that has it).


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