This wikipedia article compare general and technical information for a number of file systems including Linux and UNIX file systems.
There is also a good resource available from Novell:
Linux offers a number of file systems. This paper discusses these file systems, why there are so many, and which ones are the best to use for which workloads and data. Not all data is the same. Not all workloads are the same. Not all filesystems are the same. Matching the file system to the data and workload allows customers to build efficient scalable and cost effective solutions. The next section of this document describes four general workload areas. It is important to understand these different workloads and their requirements, as these drive requirements into file systems. This will also serve as a guide in comparing and contrasting the various file systems available in the market today.
You may also find our own articles useful:
- Understanding UNIX / Linux file system part
- Understanding UNIX/Linux filesystem Superblock
- Surviving a Linux Filesystem Failures
- Understanding UNIX/Linux filesystem Inodes
- Understanding UNIX/Linux filesystem directories
- Understanding UNIX/Linux symbolic (soft) and hard links
- Why isn’t it possible to create hard links across file system boundaries?