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apache 2

Apache2 mod_fastcgi: Connect to External PHP via UNIX Socket or TCP/IP Port

Now, mod_fastcgi is configured and running. FastCGI supports connection via UNIX sockets or TCP/IP networking. This is useful to spread load among various backends. For example, php will be severed from and python / ruby on rails will be severed from This is only possible with mod_fastcgi.
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mod_compress: Lighttpd Gzip Compression To Improve Download and Browsing Speed

Gzip is the most popular and effective compression method. Most modern web browser supports and accepts compressed data transfer. By gziping response time can reduced by 60-70% as compare to normal web page. The end result is faster web site experience for both dial up (they're not dead yet - I've dial up account for backup purpose) and broadband user. I've already written about speeding up Apache 2.x web access or downloads with mod_deflate.

mod_compress for Lighttpd 1.4.xx

Lighttpd 1.4.xx supports gzip compression using mod_compress. This module can reduces the network load and can improve the overall throughput of the webserver. All major http-clients support compression by announcing it in the Accept-Encoding header as follows:

Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate

If lighttpd sees this header in the request, it can compress the response using one of the methods listed by the client. The web server notifies the web client of this via the Content-Encoding header in the response:

Content-Encoding: gzip

This is used to negotiate the most suitable compression method. Lighttpd support deflate, gzip and bzip2.

Configure mod_compress

Open your lighttpd.conf file:
# vi /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
Append mod_compress to server.modules directive:
server.modules += ( "mod_compress" )
Setup compress.cache-dir to stored all cached file:
compress.cache-dir = "/tmp/lighttpdcompress/"
Finally, define mimetypes to get compressed. Following will allow to compress javascript, plain text files, css file,xml file etc:

compress.filetype           = ("text/plain","text/css", "text/xml", "text/javascript" )

Save and close the file. Create /tmp/lighttpdcompress/ file:
# mkdir -p /tmp/lighttpdcompress/
# chown lighttpd:lighttpd /tmp/lighttpdcompress/

Restart lighttpd:
# /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart

How do I enable mod_compress per virtual host?

Use conditional $HTTP host directive, for example turn on compression for theos.in:

$HTTP["host"] =~ "theos\.in" {
  compress.cache-dir = "/var/www/cache/theos.in/"

PHP dynamic compression

Open php.in file:
# vi /etc/php.ini
To compress dynamic content with PHP please enable following two directives:
zlib.output_compression = On
zlib.output_handler = On

Save and close the file. Restart lighttpd:
# service lighttpd restart

Cleaning cache directory

You need to run a shell script for cleaning out cache directory.

See also:

CentOS 5 Apache 2.2.3 files failing to download or corrupted download file issue

Recently, I noticed something strange about Apache 2.2.3 version running on CentOS Linux 5 64 bit version. We have centralized NFS server and all 3 web server load balanced using hardware front end (another box running LVS).

All Apache server picks up file via NFS i.e DocumentRoot is set over NFS. The small file such as 2 MB or 5 MB get downloaded correctly but large size files failed to download. Another problem was some clients reported that the file get download but cannot open due to file corruption issue.

After investigation and a little bit googling I came across the solution. You need to disable following two options:

  • EnableMMAP - This directive controls whether the httpd may use memory-mapping if it needs to read the contents of a file during delivery. By default, when the handling of a request requires access to the data within a file -- for example, when delivering a server-parsed file using mod_include -- Apache memory-maps the file if the OS supports it.
  • EnableSendfile - This directive controls whether httpd may use the sendfile support from the kernel to transmit file contents to the client. By default, when the handling of a request requires no access to the data within a file -- for example, when delivering a static file -- Apache uses sendfile to deliver the file contents without ever reading the file if the OS supports it.

However, these two directives are known to have problem with a network-mounted DocumentRoot (e.g., NFS or SMB), the kernel may be unable to serve the network file through its own cache. So just open httpd.conf on all boxes and changes the following:
EnableMMAP off
EnableSendfile off

Just restart the web server and voila!
# service httpd restart

FreeBSD Apache apr — multiple vulnerabilities

Some vulnerabilities have been reported in APR-util, which can be exploited by malicious users and malicious people to cause a DoS (Denial of Service).
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Configure an Apache web server for core dump on segmentation faults

Recently I have noticed that my Apache error log file shows it is generating segmentation faults. After doing little research I came to know that there is not simple solution to find of causes of this problem. I got an error that read as follows:

[Mon May 8 11:20:09 2006] [notice] Apache/2 (WebAppBETA) child pid 1256 exit signal Segmentation fault (11)
[Mon May 8 11:23:12 2006] [notice] Apache/2 (WebAppBETA) child pid 1301 exit signal Segmentation fault (11)

The problem is that our application development team has hacked (aka modified source code) Apache 2.0 source tree for application my company developing. To get rid of this problem I was asked to configure a Linux system so that Apache can dump core files on segmentation faults.

Apache Core Dump

Apache supports CoreDumpDirectory directive. This controls the directory to which Apache attempts to switch before dumping core. So all I need to do is put line as follows in httpd.conf:

Open httpd.conf:
# vi httpd.conf
Add following line main config section:
CoreDumpDirectory /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump
Create a directory /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump:
# mkdir -p /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump
Set permission:
# chown httpd:appserver /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump
# chmod 0777 /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump

Please note that we are using httpd user and group appserver. Please replace it with your actual Apache user:group combination.

And restart the Apache web server:
# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
OR kill Apache PID:
# kill -11 14658
Now you should see core dumps in /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump directory:
# ls /tmp/apache2-gdb-dump

How do I read the core dump files created by Apache on Linux systems?

Well I am not a developer but they are using gdb and other techniques to analyses the core dumps. Read man page of gdb for more information.

I hope that I will get a new patched version of Apache by next week. Another interesting fact I noticed that you need to configure Core Dumps on Linux only. We are also using FreeBSD for testing and it write core dump in the ServerRoot directory.

If Apache starts as root and switches to another user, the Linux kernel disables core dumps even if the directory is writable for the process. Apache (2.0.46 and later) enables core dumps on Linux 2.4 and beyond, but only if you explicitly configure a CoreDumpDirectory. :)