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dns queries

Different Type of Content Delivered Using a CDN

What types of content are generally delivered using a CDN?
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I. Background
BIND 9 is an implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols.
The named(8) daemon is an Internet Domain Name Server. DNS requests
contain a query id which is used to match a DNS request with the response
and to make it harder for anybody but the DNS server which received the
request to send a valid response.

II. Problem Description

The BIND DNS implementation does not randomize the UDP source port when
doing remote queries, and the query id alone does not provide adequate
randomization.

III. Impact

The lack of source port randomization reduces the amount of data the
attacker needs to guess in order to successfully execute a DNS cache
poisoning attack. This allows the attacker to influence or control
the results of DNS queries being returned to users from target systems.

IV. Workaround

Limiting the group of machines that can do recursive queries on the DNS
server will make it more difficult, but not impossible, for this
vulnerability to be exploited.

To limit the machines able to perform recursive queries, add an ACL in
named.conf and limit recursion like the following:

acl example-acl {
192.0.2.0/24;
};

options {
recursion yes;
allow-recursion { example-acl; };
};

V. Solution

Perform one of the following:

1) Upgrade your vulnerable system to 6-STABLE or 7-STABLE, or to the
RELENG_7_0 or RELENG_6_3 security branch dated after the correction
date.

2) To patch your present system:

The following patches have been verified to apply to FreeBSD 6.3 and
7.0 systems.

a) Download the relevant patch from the location below, and verify the
detached PGP signature using your PGP utility.

[FreeBSD 6.3]
# fetch http://security.FreeBSD.org/patches/SA-08:06/bind63.patch
# fetch http://security.FreeBSD.org/patches/SA-08:06/bind63.patch.asc

[FreeBSD 7.0]
# fetch http://security.FreeBSD.org/patches/SA-08:06/bind7.patch
# fetch http://security.FreeBSD.org/patches/SA-08:06/bind7.patch.asc

b) Execute the following commands as root:

# cd /usr/src
# patch < /path/to/patch # cd /usr/src/lib/bind # make obj && make depend && make && make install # cd /usr/src/usr.sbin/named # make obj && make depend && make && make install

NOTE WELL: This update causes BIND to choose a new, random UDP port for
each new query; this may cause problems for some network configurations,
particularly if firewall(s) block incoming UDP packets on particular
ports. The avoid-v4-udp-ports and avoid-v6-udp-ports options should be
used to avoid selecting random port numbers within a blocked range.

NOTE WELL: If a port number is specified via the query-source or
query-source-v6 options to BIND, randomized port selection will not be
used. Consequently it is strongly recommended that these options not
be used to specify fixed port numbers.

The latest revision of this advisory is available at FreeBSD

If you're new to Linux, here's a simple firewall that can be setup in minutes. Especially those coming from a Windows background, often lost themselves while creating linux firewall.
This is the most common question asked by Linux newbies (noobs). How do I install a personal firewall on a standalone Desktop Linux computer. In other words "I wanna a simple firewall that allows or permits me to visit anything from my computer but it should block everything from outside world".
Well that is pretty easy first remember INPUT means incoming and OUTPUT means outgoing connection/access. With following little script and discussion you should able to setup your own firewall.

Step # 1: Default Firewall policy

Set up default access policy to drop all incoming traffic but allow all outgoing traffic. This will allow you to make unlimited outgoing connections from any port but not incoming traffic/ports are allowed.
iptables -p INPUT DROP
iptables -p OUTPUT ACCEPT

Step # 2: Allow unlimited traffic from loopback (lo) device

iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

Step # 3: Setup connection oriented access

Some protocol such as a FTP, DNS queries and UDP traffic needs an established connection access. In other words you need to allow all related connection using iptables state modules.
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

Step # 4: Drop everything else and log it

iptables -A INPUT -j LOG
iptables -A INPUT -j REJECT

But wait you cannot type all above commands at a shell command prompt. It is a good idea to create a script called fw.start as follows (copy and paste following script in fw.start file):

#!/bin/sh
# A simple
iptables -F
iptables -X
iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t nat -X
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -t mangle -X
modprobe ip_conntrack
modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp
# Setting default filter policy
iptables -P INPUT DROP
iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# Unlimited access to loop back
iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT
# Allow UDP, DNS and Passive FTP
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
# DROP everything and Log it
iptables -A INPUT -j LOG
iptables -A INPUT -j DROP

You can enhance your tiny firewall with

  • Create a script to stop a firewall
  • This is optional, if you wish to start a firewall automatically as soon as Debian Linux boots up use the instruction outlined here
  • Finally if you wanna open incoming ssh (port 22) or http (port 80) then insert following two rules before #DROP everything and Log it line in above script:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT

Easy to use Linux firewall programs/tools

  • GUI tools - firestarter :: A graphical interfaced Open Source firewall for Linux. (highly recommended for Linux desktop users)
  • IPCop Firewall and SmoothWall :: Setup a dedicated firewall box. (highly recommended for Linux server and LAN/WAN users)

The domain name service provided by BIND (named) software. It uses both UDP and TCP protocol and listen on port 53. DNS queries less than 512 bytes are transferred using UDP protocol and large queries are handled by TCP protocol such as zone transfer.

i) named/bind server – TCP/UDP port 53

ii)Client (browser, dig etc) – port > 1023

Allow outgoing DNS client request:

Following iptables rules can be added to your shell script.

SERVER_IP is your server ip address

DNS_SERVER stores the nameserver (DNS) IP address provided by ISP or your own name servers.

Following rules are useful when you run single web/smtp server or even DSL/LL/dialup Internet connections:

SERVER_IP="202.54.10.20"
DNS_SERVER="202.54.1.5 202.54.1.6"
for ip in $DNS_SERVER
do
iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -s $SERVER_IP --sport 1024:65535 -d $ip --dport 53 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s $ip --sport 53 -d $SERVER_IP --dport 1024:65535 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT-p tcp -s $SERVER_IP --sport 1024:65535 -d $ip --dport 53 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s $ip --sport 53 -d $SERVER_IP --dport 1024:65535 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
done

(B) Allow incoming DNS request at port 53:

Use following rules only if you are protecting dedicated DNS server.

SERVER_IP is IP address where BIND(named) is listing on port 53 for incoming DNS queries.

Please note that here I'm not allowing TCP protocol as I don't have secondary DNS server to do zone transfer.

SERVER_IP="202.54.10.20"
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 --sport 1024:65535 -d $SERVER_IP --dport 53 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -s $SERVER_IP --sport 53 -d 0/0 --dport 1024:65535 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 --sport 53 -d $SERVER_IP --dport 53 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -s $SERVER_IP --sport 53 -d 0/0 --dport 53 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Please note if you have secondary server, add following rules to above rules so that secondary server can do zone transfer from primary DNS server:

DNS2_IP="202.54.10.2"
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s $DNS2_IP --sport 1024:65535 -d $SERVER_IP --dport 53 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -s $SERVER_IP --sport 53 -d $DNS2_IP --dport 1024:65535 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

BIND is the Berkeley Internet Name Domain, DNS server. It is wildly used on UNIX and Linux like oses. You can use following tools to troubleshoot bind related problems under UNIX or Linux oses.

Task: Port 53 open and listing requests

By default BIND listen DNS queries on port 53. So make sure port 53 is open and listing user requests. by running any one of the following tests. See if you can telnet to port 53 from remote computer:
$ telnet remote-server-ip 53
OR
telnet ns1.nixcraft.org domain
Output:

Trying 192.168.0.5...
Connected to ns1.nixcraft.org.
Escape character is '^]'.

If you cannot connect make sure firewall is not blocking your requests. Next use netstat command to list open and listing port 53 on server itself:
$ netstat -tulpn | grep :53
OR
# netstat -atve
Output:

Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       User       Inode
tcp        0      0 ns1.nixcraft.org:domain *:*                     LISTEN      named      10386
tcp        0      0 rhx.test.com:domain     *:*                     LISTEN      named      10384
tcp        0      0 *:ssh                   *:*                     LISTEN      root       1785
tcp        0      0 rhx.test.com:rndc       *:*                     LISTEN      named      10388
tcp        0      0 rhx.test.com:smtp       *:*                     LISTEN      root       1873
tcp        0      0 ns1.nixcraft.org:ssh    w2k.nixcraft.org:1057   ESTABLISHED root       10501
tcp        0      0 rhx.test.com:32773      rhx.test.com:domain     TIME_WAIT   root       0
tcp        0      0 ns1.nixcraft.org:32775  ns1.nixcraft.org:domain TIME_WAIT   root       0
tcp        0      0 rhx.test.com:32774      rhx.test.com:domain     TIME_WAIT   root       0

Make sure iptables firewall is not blocking request on server:
# iptables -L -n
OR
# iptables -L -n | less
Make sure named is running:
# /etc/init.d/named status
If not start named:
# chkconfig named on
# service named start

Task: Use log files

You can use log files after starting/restarting bind to see error messages:
# tail –f /var/log/message
Output:

Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: listening on IPv4 interface lo, 127.0.0.1#53
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: listening on IPv4 interface eth0, 192.168.0.5#53
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: command channel listening on 127.0.0.1#953
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: zone 0.0.127.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 1997022700
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: nixcraft.org.rev:1: no TTL specified; using SOA MINTTL instead
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: zone 0.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 12
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: zone localhost/IN: loaded serial 42
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: zone nixcraft.org/IN: loaded serial 12
Nov 17 16:50:25 rhx named[3539]: running

Task: Check zone file for errors

You can check zone file syntax and /etc/named.conf file using following utilities. named-checkconf command is named (BIND) configuration file syntax checking tool.
# named-checkconf /etc/named.conf
Output:

/etc/named.conf:32: missing ';' before 'zone'

Plesse note that if named-checkconf did not find any errors it will not display in output on screen.

Check zone file syntax for errors. named-checkzone is zone file validity checking tool. named-checkzone checks the syntax and integrity of a zone file. It performs the same checks as named does when loading a zone. This makes named checkzone useful for checking zone files before configuring them into a name server.
# named-checkzone localhost /var/named/localhost.zone
OR
#named-checkzone nixcraft.org /var/named/nixcraft.org.zone
Output:

zone nixcraft.org/IN: loaded serial 12
OK

Task: Testing BIND/DNS with utilities

You can use host and dig utilties to test your bind configuration.

  • host: host is a simple utility for performing DNS lookups. It is normally used to convert names to IP addresses and vice versa.
  • dig: dig (domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried. Most DNS administrators use dig to troubleshoot DNS problems because of its flexibility, ease of use and clarity of output. Other lookup tools tend to have less functionality than dig.

List IP address associated with host names:
# host nixcraft.org
OR
# host www
Output:

www.nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.6

Perform a zone transfer for zone name using -l option:
# host -l nixcraft.org

nixcraft.org SOA ns1.nixcraft.org. admin.nixcraft.org. 12 10800 900 604800 86400
nixcraft.org name server ns1.nixcraft.org.
nixcraft.org mail is handled by 10 mail.nixcraft.org.
nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.5
gw.nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.254
mail.nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.7
ns1.nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.5
w2k.nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.1
www.nixcraft.org has address 192.168.0.6
nixcraft.org SOA ns1.nixcraft.org. admin.nixcraft.org. 12 10800 900 604800 86400

Other examples
# dig mail.nixcraft.org
# dig 192.168.0.5