Linux does have directory server called OpenLDAP, but it requires good understanding and admin skills. Enterprise networks now have an alternative choice to Microsoft Active Directory (AD) servers, with the open source Samba project aiming for feature parity with the forthcoming release of version 4.
The smaba has a regression where under certain circumstances accessing large files might cause the client to report an invalid packet length error.
An excellent guide; it will give you steps about using Samba server to join to a Windows domain. From the article: The primary domain controller (PDC) will serve as the password server for the domain. If Samba and winbind services are running, turn them off. I will show you how turn them on after you [...]