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PHP offers simple but effective solution to log all errors to a log fiie.
On all production web server you must turn off displaying error to end users via a web browser. Remember PHP gives out lots of information about path, database schema and all other sort of sensitive information. You are strongly advised to use error logging in place of error displaying on production web sites. The idea is quite simple -only developer should see php error log.

How do I log all php errors to a log fiie?

Just add following line to /etc/php.ini to log errors to specified file – /var/log/php-scripts.log
# vi /etc/php.ini
Modify error_log directive
error_log = /var/log/php-scripts.log

Make sure display_errors set to Off (no errors to end users)
display_errors = Off

Save and close the file. Restart web server:
# /etc/init.d/httpd restart

How do I log errors to syslog or Windows Server Event Log?

Modify error_log as follows :
error_log = syslog

How do I see logs?

Login using ssh or download a log file /var/log/php-scripts.log using sftp:
$ sudo tail -f /var/log/php-scripts.log

Updated for accuracy!