≡ Menu

fedora linux

Download of the day: Fedora 8 CD / DVD ISO

Fedora 8 has been released ( jump to download link ). The Fedora Project is a Red Hat sponsored and community supported open source project. Its goal is the rapid progress of free and open source software and content. It offers cutting edge softwares for desktop usage. The latest version of the popular Linux distribution has a lot to offer users and developers.

New in Fedora 8

This release includes significant new versions of many key components and technologies.

=> This release features GNOME 2.18 and KDE 3.5.8.

=> NetworkManager 0.7 provides improved wireless network management support.

=> PulseAudio is now installed and enabled by default. PulseAudio is an advanced sound server compatible with nearly all existing Linux sound systems. PulseAudio allows for hot-switching audio outputs, individual volume controls for each audio stream, networked audio, and more.

=> Compiz Fusion, the compositing window manager that re-merges Compiz and Beryl, is installed by default for 3D effects.

=> OpenOffice.org 2.3, with many new features, is available as part of Fedora 8.

=> Laptop users benefit from the "quirks" feature in HAL, including better suspend/resume and multimedia keyboard support.

=> Fedora 8 features a 2.6.23 based Linux kernel.
Fedora Desktop Screenshots
(click to enlarge, more screenshots @ Fedora Website)

=> See Fedora 8 release notes.

Download link - ( Download Fedora )

You can download Fedora via the web/ftp server or via BitTorrent (recommended).

Fedora 8 DVD ISO download

= > Visit mirror to download Fedora ISO images (32 bit DVD ISO ~ 3.2 GB)

= > Visit mirror to download Fedora ISO images (64 bit DVD ISO ~ 3.2 GB)

Fedora 8 Live CD ISO download

=> Use 32 bit Live CD (700M) if internet connection is slow or you just want to see how Fedora works. You can install fedora from Live cd.

Fedora 8 DVD ISO BitTorrent download

=> Download from BitTorrent i386 32 bit DVD (requires a BitTorrent client)

=> Download from BitTorrent 64 bit DVD (requires a BitTorrent client)

All other downloads options and mirrors are mentioned here.

CentOS / Redhat Enterprise Linux Setup Lighttpd in Chroot Jail

Many people asked me to write about setting up Lighttpd under CentOS or RHEL 5 Linux using chroot() call. The instructions are almost same but you need to make little modification as compare to Debian / Ubuntu Linux instructions.

For example purpose we will build jail at /webroot location.
=> Default document root : /home/lighttpd/default/
=> Port : 80
=> IP: Your Public IP address
=> Virtual domain1: /home/lighttpd/vdomain1.com/
=> Virtual domain1 access log file: /var/log/lighttpd/vomain1.com/
=> Default access log file:/var/log/lighttpd/access.log
=> Default error log file:/var/log/lighttpd/error.log
=> Default php error log file: /var/log/lighttpd/php.log


These installation instructions assume you have:

  • Linux distribution
  • Required RPMs (see below for installation instructions)
    • php, php-pear, php-common, php-pdo, php-ldap, php-gd, php-cli, php-mysql
    • mysql, mysql-server etc
    • lighttpd, lighttpd-fastcgi (rpm available here)
  • Installations were tested on Red Hat Enterprise Linux v4/5 or CentOS v4/5 or Fedora Linux 7

Step # 1: Install required packages

Install php and related packages:
# yum install php php-pear php-common php-pdo php-ldap php-gd php-cli php-mysql
Install mysql and related packages:
# yum install mysql mysql-server
Install lighttpd and mod_fastcgi for lighttpd:
# rpm -ivh http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/lighttpd/lighttpd-1.4.18-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm
# rpm -ivh http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/lighttpd/lighttpd-fastcgi-1.4.18-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm

Step # 2: Create /webroot and related directories

# mkdir /webroot
# cd /webroot
# mkdir etc
# mkdir tmp
# chmod 1777 tmp/
# mkdir -p usr/bin
# mkdir -p home/lighttpd/default
# mkdir -p var/run/lighttpd
# mkdir -p var/log/lighttpd
# chown lighttpd:lighttpd var/run/lighttpd/
# chown lighttpd:lighttpd var/log/lighttpd/
# chown -R lighttpd:lighttpd home/

Step # 3: Install chroot script

You need to download and install my script that will help you to build lighttpd in jail:
# cd /sbin/
# wget http://www.cyberciti.biz/files/lighttpd/l2chroot.txt
# mv l2chroot.txt l2chroot
# chmod +x l2chroot

Step # 4: Install php in jail

Now copy php-cgi binary and related shared libraries using l2chroot script:
# cd /webroot/usr/bin
# cp /usr/bin/php-cgi .
# l2chroot php-cgi

Step # 5: Copy required files to /etc

Now you must copy php.ini and related all files to /etc/
# cd /webroot/etc
# cp /etc/passwd .
# cp /etc/group .
# cp /etc/hosts .
# cp /etc/nsswitch.conf .
# cp /etc/resolv.conf .
# cp /etc/php.ini .
# cp -avr /etc/php.d/ .
# cp -avr /etc/ld* .

Update (Oct-1-2008, 1:52pm) : You need to copy entire /etc/ and /usr/share/zoneinfo files to work with latest php version:
# cd /webroot/etc
# /bin/cp -avr /etc/* .

Copy all files from /usr/share/zoneinfo/:
# mkdir -p /webroot/usr/share/
# cd /webroot/usr/share/
# cp -avr /usr/share/zoneinfo/ .

Open group and passwd file and only keep entries for root and lighttpd user:
# vi /webroot/etc/group
Make sure file look as follows:

Also open passwd file inside jail:
# vi /webroot/etc/passwd
Make sure file look as follows:
lighttpd:x:100:101:lighttpd web server:/srv/www/lighttpd:/sbin/nologin

Step # 5: Copy php modules

Now copy php mysql support, php gd and other all modules:
# cd /webroot/usr/lib/
# cp -avr /usr/lib/php/ .
# cd php/modules
# for l in *.so; do l2chroot $l; done

Step # 6: Configure lighttpd chroot call

Open /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf file:
# vi /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
Setup default document root and chroot directory:
server.document-root = "/home/lighttpd/default/"

Save and close the file.

Step # 7: Restart lighttpd

Type the following command:
# /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart

Jail size

# du -ch /webroot/

12K     /webroot/var/log/lighttpd
16K     /webroot/var/log
4.0K    /webroot/var/run/lighttpd
8.0K    /webroot/var/run
28K     /webroot/var
8.0K    /webroot/etc/ld.so.conf.d
36K     /webroot/etc/php.d
160K    /webroot/etc
8.0K    /webroot/home/lighttpd/default
12K     /webroot/home/lighttpd
16K     /webroot/home
5.3M    /webroot/lib
4.0K    /webroot/tmp
872K    /webroot/usr/lib/sse2
1.4M    /webroot/usr/lib/mysql
676K    /webroot/usr/lib/php/modules
4.0K    /webroot/usr/lib/php/pear
684K    /webroot/usr/lib/php
9.9M    /webroot/usr/lib
2.9M    /webroot/usr/bin
13M     /webroot/usr
19M     /webroot/
19M     total


Always go thought /var/log/messages and server log files:
# tail -f /var/log/messages

Download mysql testing script

Copy and test php mysql connectivity with this script.

Linux: Display a login banner for Gnome (GDM) Desktop

You can easily use /etc/issue file to display a pre-login message / login warning banner for text based session. You can also force OpenSSH (SSHD) to display a login message or banner. But how do you force GDM to display a login banner for all local and remote users?

GDM customization

GDM is a replacement for XDM, the X Display Manager. GDM runs and manages the X servers for both local and remote logins (using XDMCP). You can easily configure GDM to display message. You need to open gdm custom configuration file:

[a] RHEL / CentOS / Fedora Linux : Open /etc/gdm/custom.conf file.
[b] Debian / Ubuntu Linux : Open /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom file.

This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the GDM configuration. If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to automatically update with the new configuration. Not all configuration options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be necessary to modify this file directly by hand.

Display a login banner for Gnome / GDM under Linux

Open /etc/gdm/custom.conf file:
# vi /etc/gdm/custom.conf
Find out [greeter] section and append following text:
Welcome=Message for local users
RemoteWelcome=Message for remote login users

Save and close the file.

A note about RHEL / CentOS / Fedora user

Apart from above configuration you also need to add following line inder the [daemon] section:

Using GUI tool gdmsetup

gdmsetup is a graphical tool for easily changing the most commonly used options including greeting messages. As I mentioned earlier gdmsetup does not support changing of all onfiguration variables, so it may be necessary to edit the files by hand for some configurations and security issues. Open X terminal and enter the command:
$ sudo gdmsetup
How do I display a login warning banner for GDM under Linux / UNIX with gdmsetup?
(click to enlarge)

Select Local tab > Welcome Messages > Custom > Enter your custom message > Click on Close button to save the changes.

Fedora Linux add MP3, Java, DVD Playback and multimedia support

Copyright/IP laws prevent shipping multimedia and mp3 software(s) and technologies/plugins with Linux distribution. Fedora is no exception to this rule. All you have to do is add few repos and you are ready to go.

Fellow Linux blogger James has published an excellent shell script hack (Fedora Feather) that adds MP3 and multimedia support to Fedora Linux:

Tired of manually adding support for mp3, dvd and Java to your fresh Fedora installs? This script will automatically do all of that.

=> Download Fedora Feather

Fix a dual boot Windows Vista and Linux problem

How do you fix a dual boot system if you had to reinstall Windows Vista and you can no longer boot to Fedora Core 6 (FC6) or Fedora Linux ? Nobody wants to reinstall FC 6 or Fedora Linux again!

Almost all versions of Microsoft Windows (including XP, Vista and old versions) overwrite GRUB bootloader in MBR (master boot record). As a result Windows boot loader becomes a new boot loader and GRUB will not appear on screen (you will not able to see GRUB menu options).

But don't worry you can easily fix the problem. Please note that if you are using Debian or Ubentu Linux just follow these instructions. Following instuctions are Fedora Linux only and should work with RHEL / CentOS too:

Step # 1: Boot from Fedora Core Linux 1st CD or DVD

Set BIOS to boot from CD/DVD rom. At boot: prompt type command linux rescue
boot: linux rescue

Just follow on screen instructions, when prompted let installer search Linux installation. If the search operation is successful, your old Linux installation will be available at special directory called /mnt/sysimage.

Step # 2: Prepare system for GRUB reinstallation

Type the following commands at shell prompt:
# chroot /mnt/sysimage
# cd /boot/grub

chroot command allows to run rest of all *COMMAND* with root directory set to NEWROOT called /mnt/sysimage. Without chroot environment you will not able to restore GRUB on Fedora Core 6.

Step # 3: Find out your GRUB bootloader installation location

If you have only one IDE hard disk default should be /dev/hda. You can use any of the following command to determine your device name:
# grep '#boot' grub.confOuput:


Above output clearly point out that /dev/sda device where my GRUB bootloader was previously installed.

You can also try out fdisk -l command to list partitions and disk information:
# fdisk -l

Step # 4: Reinstall GRUB

Use grub-install command to install GRUB on your drive /dev/sda
# grub-install /dev/sda

Please note that if above command returned any error return with --recheck option to probe a device map even if it already exists
# grub-install --recheck /dev/sda

Step # 5: Reboot system

Exit from chrooted environment and reboot Linux:
# sync;sync;exit;exit
# reboot

Now GRUB will be able to boot both Windows Vista and Fedora Core 6. In UNIX/Linux dd command can be used to backup and restore the MBR :)

Re-read The Partition Table Without Rebooting Linux System

If you are using hot swappable hard disk and created new partition using fdisk then you need to reboot Linux based system to get partition recognized. Without reboot you will NOT able to create filesystem on your newly created or modified partitions with the mke2fs command.

However with partprobe command you should able to create a new file system without rebooting the box. It is a program that informs the operating system kernel of partition table changes, by requesting that the operating system re-read the partition table.
[click to continue…]

No Route to Host error and solution

I am getting error that read as No Route to Host. I am trying to ping my ISP gateway as well as DNS server but I am getting this error. How do I solve this problem?

This problem indicate networking conflicts or some sort of networking configuration problem.

Here are things to check:

Can you ping to your local router interface (such as

Make sure your card (eth0) is properly configured with correct IP address and router address. Use ifconfig command to configure IP address and route command to setup correct router address. If you prefer to use GUI tools:

  • redhat-config-network - Works on Red Hat and Fedora Linux/Cent OS.
  • network-admin - Debian and Other Linux distribution use this GUI too

Use above two GUI tools to setup correct IP address, DNS address and router address.

b) Make sure firewall is not blocking your access

iptables is default firewall on Linux. Run following command to see what iptables rules are setup:
# /sbin/iptables -L -n

You can temporary clear all iptables rules so that you can troubleshoot problem. If you are using Red Hat or Fedora Linux type command:
# /etc/init.d/iptables save
# /etc/init.d/iptables stop

If you are using other Linux distribution type following commands:
# iptables -F
# iptables -X
# iptables -t nat -F
# iptables -t nat -X
# iptables -t mangle -F
# iptables -t mangle -X

c) Finally make sure you are using a router and not a proxy server. Proxy servers are good for Internet browsing but not for other work such as ftp, sending ICMP request and so on.

See also: