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grub boot loader

Tips To Protect Linux Servers Physical Console Access

This is an user contributed article.

Linux computer console is a physical device to operate a computer / server. Here are few steps which, if taken, make it more difficult for an attacker to quickly modify a system from its console.
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Linux: Boot a 2TB+ partition or Larger Array Using Grub

I've already written about creating a partition size larger than 2TB under Linux using GNU parted command with GPT. In this tutorial, I will provide instructions for booting to a flat 2TB or larger RAID array under Linux using the GRUB boot loader.
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How to edit GRUB Settings with GUI tool QGRUBEditor

There is a tiny little program called QGRUBEditor. It is a system GUI tool to view and edit the GRUB boot loader. It offers many features and it is the perfect solution for those who want to change the way GRUB works, without messing with GRUB's configuration files. This is an excellent tool for a new user.

From the article:

If you've been running Linux long enough to have upgraded your system more than once, you probably have several Linux kernels lurking around your system. If you discover that a certain application no longer works for you, you can go back to a previous kernel to try to run your program. GRUB, the boot loader found in most Linux distributions, lets you choose among operating systems and kernels installed on your box. Many people, however, fear that messing with GRUB may ruin their system, because of its many esoteric options, and configuration file text that often contains no help comments. QGRUBEditor can help you view and edit the GRUB boot loader from a graphical user interface.

QGRUBEditor - A visual GUI GRUB configuration editor
(Fig 01: QGRUBEditor in action [image credit official project home page] )

Download QGRUBEditor ~ A visual GUI GRUB configuration editor

Visit official project page to download QGRUBEditor (Found via Linux.com )

GNU Grub: A Beginners Guide And HowTo Collection

GNU Grub allows you to have several operating system on system and user can select one to start. Grub allows you to boot different kernels, operating system, floppy / cd boot and network boot. Dedoimedo.com has published article about how to setup and configure GRUB bootloader with multiple operating systems. This article is a compilation of sources and examples that will help you learn about GRUB. New Linux users will probably find the notion of spending hours searching for relevant pieces of information (especially if their PC won't boot) somewhat frustrating. The goal of this guide is to help provide simple and quick solutions to most common problems regarding multi-boot setups and installation of Linux operating systems:
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nixCraft FAQ Roundup April 27, 2007

Recently updated/posted Linux and UNIX FAQ (mostly useful to Linux/UNIX new administrators or users) :


Configure Ubuntu Linux GRUB to load FreeBSD

Recently my friend emailed me an interesting scenario. He installed FreeBSD 6.0 / 7.0 in the first primary partition (10G). One day he installed Ubuntu Linux. He can boot into Linux but not able to boot into FreeBSD. Now, my friend wanted to boot both FreeBSD and Ubuntu Linux via Grub boot loader.

It is not that hard to configure grub to boot FreeBSD. You just need to add following three lines to grub configuration file (/boot/grub/menu.lst). Boot into Ubuntu Linux and use text editor to edit the file /boot/grub/menu.lst ( Red hat and friends [ Fedora / CentOS ] try /etc/grub.conf file) :
$ gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
$ gksudo vi /boot/grub/menu.lst
Append FreeBSD boot Configuration:

title  FreeBSD 7.0
root   (hd0,a)
kernel /boot/loader

Save and close the file. To see changes or to boot into FreeBSD reboot Ubuntu Linux box.

  • title FreeBSD 7.0 : Start a new boot entry. User always sees this title and hit enter key to boot os.
  • root (hd0,a) : Actual part is to select the correct root partition. The root option set the current root device to the device, then attempt to mount it to get the partition size. In above example - hd0 is your first hard disk i.e. hda in Linux. In grub hda is hd0. Likewise your first, second partition on the first hard disk – hda1, hda2, becomes hd0,0 hd0,1 in Grub. In short, you are asking to use first hard first partition (remember FreeBSD use a,b,c names to represent partition names). If you have installed FreeBSD on third partition then you need to use following root statement:
    root (hd0,2,a)
  • kernel /boot/loader : Use to load the primary boot image. FreeBSD use /boot/loader to load rest of kernel and os.

HowTo: Recovering Linux Grub Boot Loader Password

If you have, a password protected grub boot loader and you forgot both root and grub password, then you can recover grub-boot loader password using the following method/procedure:

* Use Knoppix cd
* Remove the password from Grub configuration file
* Reboot the system
* Change the root password
* Setup new Grub password if required (optional)
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