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hardware information

If you are developing an application for Linux desktop and would like to automatically find out more information about system, use the following commands in shell scripts to gather information about system. Recently I was involved in project where I need to collect information about running GUI, browser and other information such as disk space, running kernel etc.

Find out KDE Desktop version:

konqueror --version

Find out Gnome Desktop version:

gnome-panel --version

Find out Mozilla browser version:

mozilla --version

Find out Firefox browser version:

firefox --version

Find out current Language:

set | egrep '^(LANG|LC_)'

Find out disk space usage:

df -h

Find/Estimate file space usage:

du -h

Find out version of Linux glibc:

ls -l /lib/libc-*.so /lib/libc.so*

Find out user limits:

ulimit -a

Find out installed device drivers (modules)

lsmod

Find out information about an X server:

xdpyinfo

It can find out:

  • Name of display:
  • Version number
  • Vendor name (such as The XFree86 Project)
  • Vendor release number
  • And XFree86 version number

Find out information about Linux CPU

cat /proc/cpuinfo

Find out information about Linux Memory

cat /proc/meminfo

OR

free -m

OR

free -g

Find out user shell name:

ps -p $$ | tail -1 | awk '{ print $4 }'

Dump Linux kernel variables

/sbin/sysctl -a

Find out running Linux kernel version:

uname -mrs
uname -a
cat /proc/version

Dump or display memory information and swap information:

free -m

Network card and IP address information:

ifconfig -a
ifconfig -a|less

Debian / Ubuntu Linux network configuration file (all interface eth0,eth1,...ethN)

more /etc/network/interfaces

Redhat / CentOS / Fedora Linux network configuration file (eth0)

more  /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

Note replace eth1 for 2nd network card and so on.

Display routing information

route -n
route

Display list of all open ports

netstat -tulpn

View login related logs

tail -f /var/log/secure
vi /var/log/secure
grep 'something' /var/log/secure

View mail server related logs

tail -f /var/log/maillog
vi /var/log/maillog
grep 'something' /var/log/maillog

Find how long the system has been running

uname
w

Show who is logged on and what they are doing

w
who

Display list of tasks

top

Display all running process

ps aux
ps aux | grep process-name

Display list of all installed software on Redhat / CentOS / Fedora

rpm -qa
rpm -qa | grep 'software-name'
rpm -qa | less

Display list of all installed software on Debian / Ubuntu

dpkg --list

Once information collected it can be easily send as an email to help desk. You can use all above command to gathers information about a remote Linux system over secure ssh session (see related functions that gathers up information about a Linux and FreeBSD system). Best part is all above commands runs in non privileged mode.

FreeBSD comes with different utilities, which can be use to gathered the information as per your needs. uname command is use to print system information. dmesg command is use to print kernel ring buffer information. sysctl command is use to configure kernel parameters at runtime as well as to read hardware information.

Following list summaries, all the command you need to gather FreeBSD hardware information.

1) Determining the Hardware Type/platform:
# uname -m
2) Determining machine processor architecture:
# uname -p
3) Determining FreeBSD release level:
# uname -r
Generally, following command is use to get all info at a time:
# uname -mrs
Output:

FreeBSD 5.0-RELEASE i386

4) Determining CPU information such as speed, make etc
# dmesg | grep CPU
Output:

CPU: Pentium 4 (1716.41-MHz 686-class CPU)
acpi_cpu0:  on acpi0
acpi_cpu: CPU throttling enabled, 8 steps from 100% to 12.5%

5) Determining real and available memory to FreeBSD:
# dmesg | grep memory
Output:

real memory  = 201326592 (192 MB)
avail memory = 188555264 (179 MB) 

Alternatively, try following command to grab memory information:
# sysctl -a | grep hw.*mem
# sysctl -a | grep mem

Output:

hw.physmem: 194985984
hw.usermem: 167641088
hw.cbb.start_memory: 2281701376

Note systcl has more info, just type the sysctl command to see rest of all information:
# sysctl -a | less
6) Determining how long a system has been up:
# uptime
7) Determining when a system was last rebooted or shutdown:
# last -1 reboot
# last -1 shutdown

8) Determining swap file system usage
# swapinfo -k
9) Determining who is logged in and what they are doing. Following all commands can be used. users command displays the list of all logged in users only.
# w
# who
# users

10) Find out when user was last logged in - You can use last command as follows:
# last user-name
(a) To find out user vivek was last logged, enter:
# last vivek

See FreeBSD getsysinfo.bash script. It is use to find general FreeBSD system information such as, hostname, OS version, Kernel version, Processor/CPU, Total RAM, System load, network interface, total logged in users, Hard disks, Runlevel etc. Make sure your read the detailed installation instruction.