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Kill a Frozen or Crashed UNIX / Linux X Desktop

Here is a quick tip to kill a crashed Linux / UNIX X desktop system. Many new user do not know this simple tip and end up hitting computer reboot button. Press CTRL + ALT + Backspace to kill GUI and get back to login screen. There are more ways to kill a crashed desktop without restarting your computer.

If CTRL + ALT + Backspace refused to work, try to login to console by pressing CTRL +ALT + F1. To kill GDM (Gnome Desktop) manger, enter:
killall gdm
You can also run the following:
/etc/init.d/gdm stop
To start GDM again, enter:
/etc/init.d/gdm start
To kill KDM (KDE Desktop), enter:
killall kdm
OR
/etc/init.d/kdm stop
To start KDM again, enter:
/etc/init.d/kdm start
This is useful for killing desktop session. You can always kill indidual process such as a web server or firefox using kill / killall command line option. Under X windows you can use xkill command kill a client by its X resource and not by process ID.

andLinux is a complete Ubuntu Linux system running seamlessly in Windows 2000 based systems (2000, XP, 2003, Vista [32-bit only]). This project was started for Dynamism for the GP2X community, but its userbase far exceeds its original design. andLinux is not just for development and runs almost all Linux applications without modification.

andLinux provides XFCE and KDE desktop.

Download andLinux

=> Visit official project to grab latest version.

KDE 4 has been released. I've received couple of questions about installing KDE 4 under Ubuntu Linux 7.10. KDE 4 Packages are available for Ubuntu Linux version 7.10 (Gutsy) and from development Ubuntu Linux Hardy version. They install to /usr/lib/kde4 and can be installed alongside your existing KDE 3. However these packages are not compatible with KDE 4 beta packages. Following simple step will help you install KDE 4.

How do I install KDE 4 under Ubuntu Linux?

First you need to update Ubuntu package source file.

WARNING! These examples may crash your Desktop as KDE v4.0 packages are not 100% compatible with Ubuntu 7.10. Following instructions worked on my desktop but failed to work on Laptop. YMMV.

Step # 1: Update Source File

Open a terminal

Open /etc/apt/sources.list file using a text editor such as vi or gedit, enter:
$ sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list
OR
$ sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Append following line:
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/kubuntu-members-kde4/ubuntu gutsy main
Close and save the file. Type the following command to update package list:
$ sudo apt-get update

GUI tool to update software source

Alternatively, you can use GUI tool by visiting System > Administration > Software Sources > Third Party Software > Add > Enter url 'deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/kubuntu-members-kde4/ubuntu gutsy main' > Add Source > Update > Close
Add KDE 4 as Software Source for Ubuntu Linux
(Fig. 01: Update Software Source for KDE 4)

Step # 2: Install KDE 4 desktop

To install kde 4, enter:
$ sudo apt-get install kde4-core
You'll get a warning when installing kde 4, just force to install the same without verification:

WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated!
Install these packages without verification [y/N]? y

Output:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  dbus-x11 dolphin-kde4 kappfinder-kde4 kde-icons-oxygen kde4libs-bin kdebase-bin-kde4 kdebase-data-kde4 kdebase-kde4 kdebase-runtime
  kdebase-runtime-bin-kde4 kdebase-runtime-data kdebase-runtime-data-common kdebase-workspace kdebase-workspace-bin kdebase-workspace-data
  kdelibs5 kdelibs5-data kdepasswd-kde4 kdepimlibs-data kdepimlibs5 kfind-kde4 klipper-kde4 konqueror-kde4 konqueror-nsplugins-kde4
  konsole-kde4 ksysguard-kde4 ksysguardd-kde4 kwin-kde4 kwrite-kde4 libcapseo0 libcaptury0 libclucene0 libexiv2-0 libgpgme11 libkonq5
  libkonq5-templates libphonon4 libplasma1 libpth20 libqimageblitz4 libraptor1 librasqal0 librdf0 libsoprano4 libstreamanalyzer0
  libstreams0 libstrigiqtdbusclient0 systemsettings-kde4
Suggested packages:
  kdebase kde-i18n sword-frontend gpgsm
Recommended packages:
  exiv2 raptor-utils redland-utils
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  dbus-x11 dolphin-kde4 kappfinder-kde4 kde-icons-oxygen kde4-core kde4libs-bin kdebase-bin-kde4 kdebase-data-kde4 kdebase-kde4
  kdebase-runtime kdebase-runtime-bin-kde4 kdebase-runtime-data kdebase-runtime-data-common kdebase-workspace kdebase-workspace-bin
  kdebase-workspace-data kdelibs5 kdelibs5-data kdepasswd-kde4 kdepimlibs-data kdepimlibs5 kfind-kde4 klipper-kde4 konqueror-kde4
  konqueror-nsplugins-kde4 konsole-kde4 ksysguard-kde4 ksysguardd-kde4 kwin-kde4 kwrite-kde4 libcapseo0 libcaptury0 libclucene0 libexiv2-0
  libgpgme11 libkonq5 libkonq5-templates libphonon4 libplasma1 libpth20 libqimageblitz4 libraptor1 librasqal0 librdf0 libsoprano4
  libstreamanalyzer0 libstreams0 libstrigiqtdbusclient0 systemsettings-kde4
0 upgraded, 49 newly installed, 0 to remove and 2 not upgraded.
Need to get 105MB of archives.
After unpacking 204MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated!
  libphonon4 libstreams0 libstreamanalyzer0 kdelibs5-data kde4libs-bin kdelibs5 libstrigiqtdbusclient0 libkonq5-templates libkonq5
  dolphin-kde4 kappfinder-kde4 kdebase-data-kde4 kdebase-bin-kde4 kdepasswd-kde4 kfind-kde4 konqueror-nsplugins-kde4 konqueror-kde4
  konsole-kde4 kwrite-kde4 kdebase-kde4 kdebase-workspace-data libplasma1 ksysguardd-kde4 ksysguard-kde4 kdebase-workspace-bin klipper-kde4
  kwin-kde4 systemsettings-kde4 kdebase-workspace kdepimlibs-data kdepimlibs5 kde4-core...
Install these packages without verification [y/N]? y
Get:1 http://ppa.launchpad.net gutsy/main libphonon4 4:4.0.0-0ubuntu2~gutsy1~ppa1 [164kB]
Get:2 http://archive.ubuntu.com gutsy-backports/universe kde-icons-oxygen 4:4.0.0-0ubuntu1~gutsy1 [45.4MB]
Get:3 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com gutsy/main dbus-x11 1.1.1-3ubuntu4 [34.8kB]
................
...
.........
Setting up systemsettings-kde4 (4:4.0.0-0ubuntu7~gutsy1~ppa1) ...
Setting up kdebase-workspace (4:4.0.0-0ubuntu7~gutsy1~ppa1) ...
Setting up kde4-core (3.3~gutsy1~ppa1) ...
Processing triggers for libc6 ...
ldconfig deferred processing now taking place

Note: It may take some time to install kde 4. You also need to disable compiz 3d desktop effect support.

References:

=> Kubuntu Project - Be Free with KDE 4.0