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kernel configuration

Tutorial: Ubuntu Linux on a Handheld / Mobile Device

Ubuntu Linux is a great server and desktop distribution for x86 computers, but did you know that it's also ideal for handheld and mobile embedded devices?

Ubuntu's latest release, Gutsy Gibbon, now includes support for the embedded and mobile spaces with the Ubuntu Mobile and Embedded (UME) project. Get to know the UME project, and find out how to get started. The primary objective of this tutorial is to get you quickly acquainted with the Ubuntu embedded framework and tools. Along the way, you learn about several tools and new approaches to Linux kernel configuration and environment construction. You also learn about some other projects with goals similar to the UME project.


  • Introduction to the Ubuntu Mobile and Embedded (UME) project, its architecture, and its use
  • How to install and test the Hildon desktop
  • How to build a development environment for a mobile device
  • Other mobile platforms

=> Explore Ubuntu Mobile and Embedded [ free registration required ]

Increase the maximum number of pseudo – terminals ~ PTY on Linux for remote Login session

Generally service such as ssh, screen, expect, telnet etc use pty (pseudo-terminals) in master – slave mode for login and other purposes. If pty setting is too low many users will not able to login to system using ssh or other commands. In this tip I will explain how to increase the maximum number of pseudo-terminals.

pty man page defines pseudo-terminal as follows:

A pseudo-terminal is a pair of virtual character devices that provide a bidirectional communication channel. One end of the channel is called the master; the other end is called the slave. The slave end of the pseudo-terminal provides an interface that behaves exactly like a classical terminal. A process that expects to be connected to a terminal, can open the slave end of a pseudo-terminal and then be driven by a program that has opened the master end. Anything that is written on the master end is provided to the process on the slave end as though it was input typed on a terminal.

List the maximum number of Pseudo-terminals

Just run the following command to list / display the maximum number of Pseudo-terminals under Linux
$ cat /proc/sys/kernel/pty/max


Increase the maximum number of Pseudo-terminals (PTY)

If you have large Linux installation such as University or ISP login service you need to increase the PTYs to allow more login sessions. Open kernel configuration file - /etc/sysctl.conf:
# vi /etc/sysctl.conf
Append following config directive (support 5120 ptys)
kernel.pty.max = 5120
Save and close the file. Reload the changes:
# sysctl -p
Verify that the new maximum number of pseudo-terminals value is changed, enter:
$ cat /proc/sys/kernel/pty/max

Further readings

=> Refer to sysctl, proc, and pty man pages for more information.

Linux device driver tutorial using kernel driver frameworks

A device driver is computer program allowing other computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. Writing a Linux device driver is considered as a black art by many. If you ever been tempted to try writing a device driver, this howto will serve as a kick start guide:

For many seasoned Linux developers, device drivers still remain a bit of a mysterious black art practiced by a select few. While no single article could possibly attempt to covered everything there is to know about writing drivers, Valerie Henson gives us a brief taste of what's involved, by implementing a device to return "Hello World" using all the major driver frameworks.

On a related note if you just want get a comprehensive overview of kernel configuration and building, a critical task for Linux users and administrators, try Linux Kernel in a Nutshell

/dev/hello_world: A Simple Introduction to Device Drivers under Linux (linuxdevcenter.com)

How to: Compile Linux kernel 2.6

Compiling custom kernel has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, new Linux user / admin find it difficult to compile Linux kernel. Compiling kernel needs to understand few things and then just type couple of commands. This step by step howto covers compiling Linux kernel version 2.6.xx under Debian GNU Linux. However, instructions remains the same for any other distribution except for apt-get command.

Step # 1 Get Latest Linux kernel code

Visit http://kernel.org/ and download the latest source code. File name would be linux-x.y.z.tar.bz2, where x.y.z is actual version number. For example file inux-2.6.25.tar.bz2 represents 2.6.25 kernel version. Use wget command to download kernel source code:
$ cd /tmp
$ wget http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-x.y.z.tar.bz2

Note: Replace x.y.z with actual version number.

Step # 2 Extract tar (.tar.bz3) file

Type the following command:
# tar -xjvf linux-2.6.25.tar.bz2 -C /usr/src
# cd /usr/src

Step # 3 Configure kernel

Before you configure kernel make sure you have development tools (gcc compilers and related tools) are installed on your system. If gcc compiler and tools are not installed then use apt-get command under Debian Linux to install development tools.
# apt-get install gcc

Now you can start kernel configuration by typing any one of the command:

  • $ make menuconfig - Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs. This option also useful on remote server if you wanna compile kernel remotely.
  • $ make xconfig - X windows (Qt) based configuration tool, works best under KDE desktop
  • $ make gconfig - X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool, works best under Gnome Dekstop.

For example make menuconfig command launches following screen:
$ make menuconfig

You have to select different options as per your need. Each configuration option has HELP button associated with it so select help button to get help.

Step # 4 Compile kernel

Start compiling to create a compressed kernel image, enter:
$ make
Start compiling to kernel modules:
$ make modules

Install kernel modules (become a root user, use su command):
$ su -
# make modules_install

Step # 5 Install kernel

So far we have compiled kernel and installed kernel modules. It is time to install kernel itself.
# make install

It will install three files into /boot directory as well as modification to your kernel grub configuration file:

  • System.map-2.6.25
  • config-2.6.25
  • vmlinuz-2.6.25

Step # 6: Create an initrd image

Type the following command at a shell prompt:
# cd /boot
# mkinitrd -o initrd.img-2.6.25 2.6.25

initrd images contains device driver which needed to load rest of the operating system later on. Not all computer requires initrd, but it is safe to create one.

Step # 7 Modify Grub configuration file - /boot/grub/menu.lst

Open file using vi:
# vi /boot/grub/menu.lst

title           Debian GNU/Linux, kernel 2.6.25 Default
root            (hd0,0)
kernel          /boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/hdb1 ro
initrd          /boot/initrd.img-2.6.25

Remember to setup correct root=/dev/hdXX device. Save and close the file. If you think editing and writing all lines by hand is too much for you, try out update-grub command to update the lines for each kernel in /boot/grub/menu.lst file. Just type the command:
# update-grub
Neat. Huh?

Step # 8 : Reboot computer and boot into your new kernel

Just issue reboot command:
# reboot
For more information see:

  • Our Exploring Linux kernel article and Compiling Linux Kernel module only.
  • Official README file has more information on kernel and software requirement to compile it. This file is kernel source directory tree.
  • Documentation/ directory has interesting kernel documentation for you in kernel source tree.