ls command

Chrooted jail allows run command or service such as http / mysql / postfix with special root directory i.e. chroot changes the root directory for application. The biggest benefit is a service that is re-rooted to another directory cannot access files outside that directory. Basically you are going to set service in sandbox. Chrooting offers […]


I’ve already written about conceptual information regarding file system, especially data structure and related terms that help you become a successful system administrator. However I do get few emails asking about /opt directory or /usr or /lost+found directories and their purpose on the system. Exploring Linux File System Hierarchy A typical Linux system has the […]


While administrating a box, you may wanted to find out what a processes is doing and find out how many file descriptors (fd) are being used. You will surprised to find out that process does open all sort of files:
=> Actual log file

=> /dev files

=> UNIX Sockets

=> Network sockets

=> Library files /lib /lib64

=> Executables and other programs etc

In this quick post, I will explain how to to count how many file descriptors are currently in use on your Linux server system.


A quick question from my mail bag: How do I display or get the date when a file was last time accessed? The best and simplest way is to use stat command. It displays file or file system status such as: => File size => File type => Inode number => UID/GID => File access […]


This article was organically contributed by monk. When you are logged in to a Linux server and you type a command. It is the responsibility of the shell to interpret your command. Here I will explain how BASH shell finds out which program to run. The method used by SHELL is straightforward but often creates […]