passwd command

If you forgot your root password, you can simply reset it. The general procedure for resetting password is as follows (if you are a Linux user, see how to reset Linux root password): a) At boot> prompt force openbsd to boot into a single user mode b) Next mount file system in read-write mode c) […]

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With FreeBSD version 5.4 and above the booting procedure is slightly changed. The older version of FreeBSD uses the boot -s option at Ok prompt. However, with FreeBSD version FreeBSD 5.4+ you don’t have to type any commands. Here is the procedure to boot FreeBSD into a single user mode to reset root password.


If you have, a password protected grub boot loader and you forgot both root and grub password, then you can recover grub-boot loader password using the following method/procedure:

* Use Knoppix cd
* Remove the password from Grub configuration file
* Reboot the system
* Change the root password
* Setup new Grub password if required (optional)


You may delete a file called /etc/shadow. If you try to boot into a single user mode, system will ask for the maintenance root password. Now imagine this, you do not have a backup of /etc/shadow file. How do you fix such problem in a production environment where time is a critical factor? I will explain how to recover a deleted /etc/shadow file in five easy steps.


Have you ever wondered why shutdown account exists on Linux server, especially under Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution?

The answer is quite simple – shutdown account can shutdown server. Here is how you can enable the shutdown account: