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port speed

I have already written about how to find and change your network interface speed (NIC), duplex or auto negotiate settings on Linux using ehttool command line options.

However, these settings are not permanent. If you reboot the system or if you just
need to upgrade/downgrade your port speed, run the ehtool command once your port change by network administrator. (If you want to read about how to make Windows 2000/2003 server port speed change, read my previous article.)

Changing your Network Interface Speed, Duplex or Auto Negotiate settings on Red Hat Linux

To set the interface speed, duplex or auto negotiation on Linux system boot up (make settings permanent), you need edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file for eth0 interface. This file used by Red Hat enterprise Linux, Fedora core, Cent Os etc.

Open the file:
# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

Append following line:
ETHTOOL_OPTS="speed 100 duplex full autoneg off"

Save and close the system. It will set the eth0 device to 100Mbs, full duplex, with the auto negotiation off at boot time. You can simply restart the networking (it will disconnect all ssh or ftp session) or restart the server. Depend upon traffic and load it may take upto 1 minute to setup a new port speed:
# /etc/init.d/network restart

If you want 1000Mbs set line as follows:
ETHTOOL_OPTS="speed 1000 duplex full autoneg off"Update: if above command failed to work for 1000Mbps use following command (see below in comment sections for discussion) :ETHTOOL_OPTS="speed 1000 duplex full autoneg on"

Debian or Ubuntu Linux permanent settings

Under Debian or Ubuntu Linux just create a script as follows:
# vi /etc/init.d/100Mbs
OR
$ sudo vi /etc/init.d/100Mbs
Append following lines:
#!/bin/sh
ETHTOOL="/usr/sbin/ethtool"
DEV="eth0"
SPEED="100 duplex full"
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Setting eth0 speed 100 duplex full...";
$ETHTOOL -s $DEV speed $SPEED;
echo " done.";;
stop)
;;
esac
exit 0
Save and close the file. Setup executable permission:
# chmod +x /etc/init.d/100MbsOR$ sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/100Mbs

Now run script when Debian or Ubuntu Linux boots up. Use update-rc.d command install System-V style init script links:# update-rc.d 100Mbs defaultsOR# sudo update-rc.d 100Mbs defaultsOutput:

 Adding system startup for /etc/init.d/100Mbs ...
   /etc/rc0.d/K20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs
   /etc/rc1.d/K20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs
   /etc/rc6.d/K20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs
   /etc/rc2.d/S20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs
   /etc/rc3.d/S20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs
   /etc/rc4.d/S20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs
   /etc/rc5.d/S20100Mbs -> ../init.d/100Mbs

Reboot the system to take effect or just type scrit name:
# /etc/init.d/100Mbs startOR$ sudo /etc/init.d/100Mbs start

See also:

Linux ultra fast command line download accelerator

Usually I use wget, which is ultimate command line downloader. However, wget failed to accelerate my download speed. I was downloading 1.4GB file around 800KB/s download speed (this box is hooked to uplink port speed 10 Mbps ). However, remote server was restricting me.

Therefore, I decided to get rid of wget. I have downloaded axel - a light download accelerator for Linux command line.

How Axel works?

Axel does the same thing any other accelerator does: it opens more than one HTTP/FTP connection per download and each connection transfers its own, separate, part of the file. It may sound weird, but it works very well in practice. For example, some FTP sites limit the speed of each connection, therefore opening more than one connection at a time multiplies the allowable bandwidth. Be forewarned that some FTP operators don't like it when you do this. It is better to open the additional connections on several servers and download from all of them simultaneously. Axel supports this feature too. You may either specify a list of mirrors to use or tell the program to search for mirrors.

This is a perfect tool over remote ssh session for downloading large file.

Install axel

If you are using Debian, type the following command to install axel:
# apt-get install axel

Or you can download axel from official website:
$ wget http://wilmer.gaast.net/downloads/axel-1.0b.tar.gz

Untar the axel:
$ tar -zxvf axel-1.0b.tar.gz

Configre and compile axel:
$ ./configure

Install axel:
# make install

On the other hand, just upload a newly build axel binary to remote Linux server using scp. Usually I do not install gcc c/c++ compilers collection on any of my production web/ftp/MySql servers for security reasons.

How do I use axel?

Just type the command as follows:
$ axel http://download.com/file.tar.gz

Limit speed
You can also specify a speed (bytes per sec) for axel so that it will not eat up all your bandwidth. For example following will try to keep the average speed around 5242880 (5120 Kilobyte per/sec):
$ axel -s 5242880 http://download.com/my.iso

Limit a number of connection
You can also specify number of connection you want to open. For example open 3 connections for downloading:
$ axel -n 3 -s 5242880 http://download.com/my.iso

But how fast is axel?

Here is sample test that demonstrates how fast is axel

$ wget http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2

Output:

--12:10:31--  http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2
           => `linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2'
Resolving kernel.org... 204.152.191.5, 204.152.191.37
Connecting to kernel.org|204.152.191.5|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 41,288,067 (39M) [application/x-bzip2]
100%[================================================================================>] 41,288,067     2.33M/s    ETA 00:00
12:10:48 (2.31 MB/s) - `linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2' saved [41288067/41288067]

$ axel http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2

Output:

Initializing download: http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2
File size: 41288067 bytes
Opening output file linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2.1
Starting download
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [ 247.1KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [ 408.3KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [ 566.3KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [ 707.2KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [ 836.5KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [ 975.9KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [1079.9KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [1210.0KB/s]
[  0%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [1303.1KB/s]
[  1%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [1422.1KB/s]
[  1%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [1508.0KB/s]
[  1%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [1629.2KB/s]
..........
...
....
[ 99%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [8710.2KB/s]
[ 99%]  .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........  [8680.7KB/s]
[100%]  .......... ..........
Downloaded 39.4 megabytes in 4 seconds. (8681.65 KB/s)

As you see axel downloaded same file in 4 seconds. Another great thing its binary size, I can put axel on boot disk and replace a wget.

prozilla - another good program with GUI frontend

One of the drawback of axel is you can not specify ftp username and password. You can use prozilla program, which also makes multiple connections and downloads a file in multiple parts simultaneously thus enhancing the download speed and dwnloading the file faster than a download with a single connection.

FTP passwords can be specified with the URL, or can be obtained automatically from ~/.netrc if it exists.

Install prozilla

# yum install prozilla

Or download prozilla from official web site.

To use prozilla just type the following command (command line version):
$ proz http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2

prozilla - another good program with GUI frontend
(click to enlrage image)

Further readings