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sudo command

Both Debian and Ubuntu Linux provides a number of package management tools. This article summaries package management command along with it usage and examples for you.
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FreeBSD comes with kldstat command. The kldstat utility or command displays the status of any files dynamically linked into the kernel. And the kldunload utility unloads a file which was previously loaded with lldload command. You can use kldunload command as follows.

Unload a file from the kernel

First login as a root user (use su - or sudo commnad):

Get list of loaded modules/drivers first use following command

# kldstat

To remove module use the following command

The kldstat utility displays the status of any files dynamically linked into the kernel.

kldunload -i ID


kldunload module-name

Example to unload smbfs module

Type the following command as the root user:
# kldunload smbfs
# kldunload -i 8

Please note that # 8 is module ID obtained using kldstat command.

Force the unload

You can pass -f option to kldunload to force the unload. This ignores error returns to MOD_QUIESCE from the module and implies that the module should be unloaded even if it is currently in use. The users are left to cope as best they can.
# kldunload -f smbfs

Shutdown Linux Server With Shutdown Account

Have you ever wondered why shutdown account exists on Linux server, especially under Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution? The answer is quite simple - shutdown account can shutdown server. Here is how you can enable the shutdown account:
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