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syn flood

You can test your IDS or IPS devices to monitor your scan traffic. Use this feature to avoid detection with nmap. You may not want to get caught performing a network scan. For example, using following technique you can test your own IDS / IPS / network security from remote location or home.

nmap Decoy option - Cloak a scan with decoys

nmap has -D option. It is called decoy scan. With -D option it appear to the remote host that the host(s) you specify as decoys are scanning the target network too. Thus their IDS might report 5-10 port scans from unique IP addresses, but they won't know which IP was scanning them and which were innocent decoys. While this can be defeated through router path tracing, response-dropping, and other active mechanisms, it is generally an effective technique for hiding your IP address.

You can separate each decoy host with commas, and you can optionally use ME as one of the decoys to represent the position for your real IP address. If you put ME in the 6th position or later, some common port scan detectors (such as Solar Designer's excellent scanlogd) are unlikely to show your IP address at all. If you don't use ME, nmap will put you in a random position. Note that the hosts you use as decoys should be up or you might accidentally SYN flood your targets. Also it will be pretty easy to determine which host is scanning if only one is actually up on the network. You might want to use IP addresses instead of names (so the decoy networks don't see you in their nameserver logs).

WARNING! These penetration testing (security testing) examples may be considered as Unauthorized Access or Illegal Behavior. Use examples on your own RISK and/or to secure your own network host / IPS /IDS.

Use the following syntax:
# nmap -n -Ddecoy-ip1,decoy-ip2,your-own-ip,decoy-ip3,decoy-ip4 remote-host-ip
# nmap -n -D192.168.1.5,10.5.1.2,172.1.2.4,3.4.2.1 192.168.1.5

Host 192.168.1.5 (or network IDS / IPS) will see 4 port scan and remote host / IDS has no way telling which one was real. Decoys are used both in the initial ping scan (using ICMP, SYN, ACK, or whatever) and during the actual port scanning phase. Decoys are also used during remote OS detection (-O). Decoys do not work with version detection or TCP connect scan. It is worth noting that using too many decoys may slow your scan and potentially even make it less accurate. Also, some ISPs will filter out your spoofed packets, but many do not restrict spoofed IP packets at all.

nmap ideal scan technique to hide your IP

Following example, uses an an idle scan technique. It uses port 1234 on 1.1.1.1 IP as as a zombie to scan host - 192.1.2.3:
# nmap -P0 -sI 1.1.1.1:1234 192.1.2.3

This technique only hides your source address but remote IPS / IDS always record and logs scan. Please refer to nmap man page for more information:
man nmap

A SYN flood is a form of denial-of-service attack in which an attacker sends a succession of SYN requests to a target's system. This is a well known type of attack and is generally not effective against modern networks. It works if a server allocates resources after receiving a SYN, but before it has received the ACK.

if Half-open connections bind resources on the server, it may be possible to take up all these resources by flooding the server with SYN messages. Syn flood is common attack and it can be block with following iptables rules:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 3 -j RETURN

All incoming connection are allowed till limit is reached:

  • --limit 1/s: Maximum average matching rate in seconds
  • --limit-burst 3: Maximum initial number of packets to match

Open our iptables script, add the rules as follows:

# Limit the number of incoming tcp connections
# Interface 0 incoming syn-flood protection
iptables -N syn_flood
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -j syn_flood
iptables -A syn_flood -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 3 -j RETURN
iptables -A syn_flood -j DROP
#Limiting the incoming icmp ping request:
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit  1/s --limit-burst 1 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 1 -j LOG --log-prefix PING-DROP:
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -j DROP
iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT

First rule will accept ping connections to 1 per second, with an initial burst of 1. If this level crossed it will log the packet with PING-DROP in /var/log/message file. Third rule will drop packet if it tries to cross this limit. Fourth and final rule will allow you to use the continue established ping request of existing connection.
Where,

  • ‐‐limit rate: Maximum average matching rate: specified as a number, with an optional ‘/second’, ‘/minute’, ‘/hour’, or ‘/day’ suffix; the default is 3/hour.
  • ‐‐limit‐burst number: Maximum initial number of packets to match: this number gets recharged by one every time the limit specified above is not reached, up to this number; the default is 5.

You need to adjust the –limit-rate and –limit-burst according to your network traffic and requirements.

Let us assume that you need to limit incoming connection to ssh server (port 22) no more than 10 connections in a 10 minute:

iptables -I INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d $SERVER_IP --sport 513:65535 --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -m recent --set -j ACCEPT
iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 600 --hitcount 11 -j DROP
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -s $SERVER_IP -d 0/0 --sport 22 --dport 513:65535 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

See also:

More information on recent patch can be found here