{ 56 comments… read them below or add one }

1 makash November 12, 2005 at 3:01 pm

OT but was wondering are you from India?

The timestamp is a give away


2 nixcraft November 12, 2005 at 7:11 pm

Yup I’m from India :)


3 Anonymous February 2, 2006 at 12:00 am

hm, did I something wrong? I can remove the file with $ rm “la*


4 Thomas Scott January 29, 2007 at 4:08 am

Future is , no one will load
executable code , only data and
data will be parsed by kernel and
typed , compresed , and added to
a structure .
This allows the OpSys to be tiny .
because it eliminates the extra
work the kernel had to do ,
explaining to humans ….
This obsoletes SU and makes it
much easier to “control” a machine .
Permissions are no longer necessary .
Scratch lists stop all unauthorized
acesses .
This not new , these simple fixes
have been around for 100’s of years ,
Only computer s/w can change in
minutes , and “pink slip” millions .


5 aamod August 6, 2007 at 6:10 am

Great blog…. Has a lot of correct info and I find it very useful….


6 Riz October 9, 2007 at 11:00 am

just to let you know…. that file once created can be removed in another way. using rm -i *. this is an interactive mode and asks you if want to delete each file in turn. so please correct as the above information you are providing is inaccurate.


7 nixCraft October 9, 2007 at 1:58 pm


I’m aware of this command. A long time ago on NFS mounted system there was a file called 2001/05/11. and no UNIX / Linux command was able delete this file by name. Only method to delete such file is delete file by an inode number. Linux or UNIX never allows creating filename like 2001/05/11 but if you are using NFS from MAC OS or Windows then it is possible to create a such file.

So above information is 100% accurate.


8 Riz October 9, 2007 at 3:10 pm


i dont have a windows box to test this so i will take you word as gold, but it is nice to see an active posting community rather than one which is dead (which i normally find whilst search things like this)



9 Anyeos March 6, 2008 at 6:14 am

What strange but true I cannot create a dir or file with this commands:
touch “10/11/2006″
mkdir “10/11/2006″

You can see what I’m using quotes to bypass the shell. But anyway I cannot create such file/dir.

That is for some reason?
I have other doubt (I don’t expect to be answered here): Why linux filesystem does not save “file creation time”? What is the reason?



10 ronald March 12, 2008 at 2:24 pm

It’s inaccurate to say that every file under Linux has the attributes that you listed … especially the extended attributes. All these attributes are properties of the filesystem, be it ext3, xfs, jfs etc. In particular, extended attributes apply to ext2/ext3


11 prasanna kumar April 14, 2008 at 9:19 am

hi friends,,
plz i want some coomands in linux
1)question: in linux basic commands are not working that u can do.
example : ls
pc displays command not found.
2)question : i have 3 files. i want serach some words like kernel.all files are have kernel word so prints word as well as numbers with single line. using single command grep (or) sde command plz send syntax and example.


12 Prabjeet Singh April 17, 2012 at 3:44 pm

try this:

$ sudo su –
# ls


13 Moneo May 19, 2008 at 11:10 am

rm ‘”\la*’

deleted it fine for me


14 tarun May 20, 2008 at 8:11 pm

this is to aneyous according to my knowledge if u want to create a file say 10/11/2008 try this 10\11\2008 and for a directory also


15 tarun May 20, 2008 at 8:28 pm

guys i have one question i couldnt find an answer to ..i will explain in steps what did i do
from root user i did this:
1. adduser tarun
2. passwd tarun
3. log in to a terminal with user tarun
4. create a text file say “test1″ with “cat” and
type some text in it,and save the file.
5. now i did chmod 000 on the file.
6. i opened “test1″ with vim editor. i try
inserting some text in it i get a warning tht
i might be changing a read only file,
7. i save and exit the text inside “test1″
forcefully using “wq!”
8. now i do chmod 644 on “test1″and again open the file and write something in it and save it
9. if do “cat test1″ i see only the last text i inserted after doing chmod 644 and not anything before …could’nt figure it out why the system did not append the text i had just written to the text i had written earlier


16 vinod April 14, 2010 at 11:12 am

when you inserting the text into test1 file while the file has 000 access permissions it gives you warning but when you after chmod644 the file has only read and write permissions not execute to owner so you write in test1 and can’t execute so system bydefault takes the last text. so try by chmod744 then insert text.


17 Arunachalama December 12, 2010 at 7:37 am

When tried first time , permission was 000, obviously no access to write,read or execute to any one, not even root,
and one thing you have to notice in VIM editor commands
You have entered “:wq!” – it mens what ever the error (in your case the error is, you are trying to append data to a read only file) ignore and close the file forcefully.

if you tried it with “:wq” then it will shows the error i.e read only file.

but second time that is with permission 644, Vinoth is correct
Vinoth’s reply
“chmod644 the file has only read and write permissions not execute to owner so you write in test1 and can’t execute so system bydefault takes the last text. so try by chmod744 then insert text”


18 sayantika October 17, 2012 at 10:06 am

i did what u did but am getting all the lines, and not just the last one…


19 Krishna December 3, 2008 at 4:54 pm

There are no inodes for creating files, how can i overcome this situation


20 Bbp February 19, 2009 at 3:43 pm


The command “chmod 000″ change the file rights. The code “000” is in Octal.
The first byte is for file owner rights.
The second byte is for group rights.
The third byte is for rights according to other users.

The numbers, in octal, works as following:
0 = (—) = No right
1 = (–x) = Execute
2 = (-w-) = Write
4 = (r–) = Read
You can combine them:
3 = 1+2 = (-wx) = Write + Execute
5 = 1+4 = (r-x) = Read + Execute
6 = 2+4 = (rw-) = Read + Write
7 = 1+2+4 = (rwx) = Read + Write + Execute

Example, “chmod 740 somefile” will give full access to the owner of “somefile” (rwx), read only for other member of the file group (r–) and protect the file from been access by other users (—). The command “ls -l somefile” display this:
-rwxr—– 1 me filegroup 0 Feb 19 10:32 somefile

So, the command “chmod 000″ remove all rights to anyone on the file, including the owner. That’s why you can not wirte new data on it and you have to force quit from vi (q! is a forced quit).
The command “chmod 644″ give the number 6 for the owner (rw-) which give you back the read and write access.


21 Iyyappan March 23, 2009 at 5:28 pm

innode ******** has illegal blocks. clear ?

what issue is this one. is this a major issue . kindly reply . i need help badly. mean while i am googling to find a solution


22 Mukesh Handa August 23, 2009 at 10:17 am

Hi Friends I am new to this linux world…. I am struck with one thing…. I want to know how we can change our root password if i forget this….


23 spark October 19, 2009 at 10:48 am

welcome to the world of Linux
its quite easy to change password of root..start ur OS in single user mode….for tht u simply edit kernal parameter
to edit kernal simply go to kernal parameter press (e) to edit,nw simply rite 1 thr & thn press (b) to boot system to boot the system..
thr u will get a shell kind of( sh.3#) there simply type (passwd) shell will ask u for new Unix password..type the new password,thn retype it.ur password will b changed


24 P.Karunakar reddy February 20, 2010 at 6:00 pm

how can i recover data from inode numbers


25 vikram February 23, 2010 at 6:20 pm

I am vikram i am new to linux world. My frnds r playing vth linux. I am soo many doubts in this
1). If you having a string”one two three”,Which shell commamd would you use to extract the strings?
2).What is diff bw a shell varible that is exported and the one that is not exported?
3).How wil u list only the empty lines in a file(using grep)?
4).How do u open a read only file in unix?
5).How do u schedule a command to run at 4:00every morning?
6).What are diff kinds of loops available in shell script?
7).What is the use of “cut”command?give some example . Can we use “awk”or “sed”?
8).What is the line in shell script do #!/bin/ksh
9).What is diff bw writing code in shell and editor?
10).What is diff “thread” and “process”?


26 vikram February 23, 2010 at 6:28 pm

1).How can we know how many had logged in and logged out in last 10 min?
2).How to delete a word from a file using shell?
3).How to extract the second row of a text-file?
4).How to compare 2 floating point num?


27 karunakar reddy.P March 1, 2010 at 4:20 pm

hi, i am karan,
what is diff between soft link and hard link


28 vinod April 14, 2010 at 10:57 am

Super blog, I just love it . I am so excited to study more about linux.Thank you


29 sat July 6, 2010 at 5:58 am

I need to view inodes details in graphical window. Is there any command.


30 akhilesh singh August 12, 2010 at 9:18 am

what is link of file system (ext2,ext3) and inode number.


31 gabak October 18, 2010 at 2:02 am

i did a file with touch
ex: touch 111
ls -la
i see the list of file with the date and hours.
why does it say in this article that linux inodo does nt say file creation time??


32 mhrivnak July 11, 2011 at 5:04 am

The number of soft links, or any information about soft links, is definitely not stored in the inode. Otherwise, great write-up.


33 satish inmpudi August 23, 2011 at 11:36 am

how to remove user with data directory also in one cmd


34 satish inmpudi August 23, 2011 at 11:37 am

How to create a directory root user also cnt delete it


35 Senthilkumar December 28, 2011 at 9:02 am

Hi to all,
I want some details about EXT4 Inode 128 and 256.
Actually i am using windows XP 32 bit os. And i have created ext4 256 inode to my 250GB external usb drive. after creating this ext4 256inode i pluged into windows XP machine the drive is not detecting to my system. i am using IFS 1.11a version. if any patch file please send me. any other information please share with me.


36 Arun January 22, 2012 at 12:26 pm

Really nice website :)

Thanks for the information.


37 prabhas November 28, 2012 at 10:47 am

Thanks for the info…… its very helpful


38 so February 6, 2013 at 10:42 am

so how delete file by inode number?


39 shankar February 8, 2013 at 10:30 am

i wonder why u u mention UNIX or Linux never create file creation time actually it displays modifying time so please check again (text created in opensuse)


40 shankar February 8, 2013 at 10:39 am

i mean create or store time (file created)


41 sankara February 15, 2013 at 1:39 am

very useful….thanks 2 all….


42 Karl Max March 16, 2013 at 2:50 pm

Hi, i saw your post and i really like it, but, about inode or how to remove a file that has a direfent name or diferent by default of the system like ( “la* ) i can say that i can remove it using this tips ( ‘ ‘) like it :

touch \”la*
when i type ls -il
it list “la* right?
but, whe i type rm -i “la* the linux prompt me like this:
and i need put crtl+c to get out…
but when i type rm -i ‘ “la* ‘ it work

thanks for read….greetings


43 amit April 9, 2013 at 12:28 am

correction to the line in the article
=> Number of links (soft/hard)

it is only hard links and not soft links


44 BlackList May 28, 2013 at 5:02 am

you can remove that file without Inode by using this command:
rm \”la*


45 pk June 19, 2013 at 5:23 pm

userdel -r [username] will delete the user and its home directory as well.


46 pk June 19, 2013 at 5:29 pm


What is diff “thread” and “process”?

A: Thread used to handle a request in partly manner i.e each thread handle some portion of a request.
But Process handle a single complete request at once.


47 pk June 19, 2013 at 5:39 pm

What is diff bw writing code in shell and editor?

A: In linux script code is a set of commands which are placed in single .sh file and can be executed once to automate a task.
if we use these commands on shell, we cannot get the o/p of the task at once and need to enter the commands one by one in shell.

Also, if we write linux code in a editor & save, it will become a script, else for every command manual intervention is required to get the o/p.


48 pk June 19, 2013 at 5:41 pm

What is the line in shell script do #!/bin/ksh

A: It will execute script on the same shell (korn shell) and no export env. variable is required.


49 pk June 19, 2013 at 5:44 pm

What is the use of “cut”command?give some example . Can we use “awk”or “sed”?

A: We can use sed & awk as well.

eg: sed -e ‘s/a/b/g’ & awk ‘{print $1}’


50 pk June 19, 2013 at 5:48 pm


4).How do u open a read only file in unix?
5).How do u schedule a command to run at 4:00every morning?

A: to open a read only file use ‘cat filename’ or ‘Vi filename’ or ‘nano filename’.
A: to schedule use : 00 04 * * * sh [location of your script] 2&>/dev/null


51 Janis October 30, 2013 at 9:39 am

$ cd /tmp
$ touch \”la*
$ ls -l

Can be deleted:
$ rm ‘”la*’


52 Ronald Monty Montemayor December 6, 2013 at 5:48 pm

>>”Now try to remove file “la*
>>>You can’t”””


Everything in the filesystem that has a filename can be removed. only then if the file lost it’s inode, or the filename got lost, then it’s a problem… it it can still be taken care of by fsck and they’ll end up in lost+found folder…

SO, how do you remove the “la* file? easy…

# rm \”la*”

Done!… please correct this article, you are sending the wrong message to the community.


53 nadrimajstor January 15, 2014 at 8:33 pm

(remember UNIX or Linux never stores file creation time, this is favorite question asked in UNIX/Linux sys admin job interview)

Don’t know about UNIX, but Linux do store file creation time.
Reference from 2006. Re: creation time stamps for ext4
Example: debugfs -R “stat /etc/hosts/” /dev/sdb1

ctime: 0x5165b3df:5a65abd4 — Wed Apr 10 20:47:59 2013
atime: 0x52d5e403:e1b13ab0 — Wed Jan 15 02:27:31 2014
mtime: 0x5165b3df:5a65abd4 — Wed Apr 10 20:47:59 2013
crtime: 0x5165b31e:a3d45f98 — Wed Apr 10 20:44:46 2013

Notice aditional crtime field.

Please consider updating the article.
Thank you in advance.


54 Sai July 19, 2014 at 5:56 am

mv filename newfilename


55 Vanish August 4, 2014 at 9:03 pm

Actually you can delete \”a* using mc -> F8.
That is if you have mc installed.


56 Ankit October 27, 2014 at 1:17 pm

can be deleted like this –

[root@kicktest tmp]# touch \”la*
[root@kicktest tmp]# rm *la*
rm: remove regular empty file `”la*’? y


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