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Linux How-To Articles and Guide

Tutorials, tips, and guides for users of Linux operating systems.

Testing HTTP Status: 206 Partial Content and Range Requests

The HTTP 2xx class of status codes indicates the action requested by the client was received, and processed successfully. HTTP/1.1 200 OK is the standard response for successful HTTP requests. When you type www.cyberciti.biz in the browser you will get this status code. The HTTP/1.1 206 status code allows the client to grab only part of the resource by sending a range header. This is useful for:

  1. Understanding http headers and protocol.
  2. Troubleshooting network problems.
  3. Troubleshooting large download problems.
  4. Troubleshooting CDN and origin HTTP server problems.
  5. Test resuming interrupted downloads using tools like lftp or wget or telnet.
  6. Test and split a large file size into multiple simultaneous streams i.e. download a large file in parts.

Linux ifdata Command: See Network Interface Info Without Parsing ifconfig Output

Reading an IP address in a shell script requires many time and various Linux distributions stores IP address in different text files. So most of us end up writing shell pipes/scripts to get the information using ifconfig | grep 'inet addr:'| grep -v '' | cut -d: -f2 | awk '{ print $1}' syntax. There is an alternative to ifconfig+shell pipe hack - ifdata command. It is a little know tool that can be used to check for the existence of a network interface and find out info about your interface such as IP, netmask, MTU and much more. No need to write shell pipes and fetch information via ifconfig or ip command. This command is designed to be easily used by a shell script.

Shutter: The Ultimate Linux Screenshot Program

Shutter is a free, open-source, and feature-rich screenshot tool for GNU/Linux distributions. I use this tool frequently when I am creating resources for this site or for our youtube channel and it has not yet let me down.

agedu: Unix / Linux Command For Tracking Down Wasted Disk Space

Most sysadmin will run low on disk space. Users will demand more space and you need to free space. You will find out files that's a waste of space and delete it or move to an archive medium. But, how do you find the right files to delete that can help recover maximum space? Say hello to agedu tool (pronounced as 'age dee you') - it scans a directory tree and produces reports about how much disk space is used in each directory and subdirectory, and also how that usage of disk space corresponds to files with last-access times a long time ago. In other words, this command might help you to free up disk space.

HowTo: Linux Hard Disk Encryption With LUKS [ cryptsetup Command ]

Dear nixCraft,

I carry my Linux powered laptop just about everywhere. How do I protect my private data stored on partition or removable storage media against bare-metal attacks where anyone can get their hands on my laptop or usb pen drive while traveling?

Worried about my data.

Convert HTML Page To a PDF Using Open Source Tool [ Linux / OS X / Windows ]

Do you need a simple open source cross-platform command line tool that converts web pages and HTML to a PDF file? Look no further, try wkhtmltopdf.

Linux / Unix Desktop Fun: Cat And Mouse Chase All Over Your Screen

Oneko is a little fun app. It will change your cursor into mouse and creates a little cute cat and the cat start chasing around your mouse cursor. The word "neko" means "cat" in Japanese and it was originally written by a Japanese author as a Macintosh desktop accessory.

Debian Linux Install Avant: A MacOS X Like Panel for GNOME Desktop

Avant Window Navigator (AWN or Awn) is a fully customisable dock-like bar for the GNOME desktop environment.This quick blog post explains how to install and use Avant Window Navigator (AWN) under Debian Linux 6.x+.

Debian Squeeze: Install Emerald Windows Decorator And Theme Manager

The Emerald Window Decorator is a custom window decorator shipped with Compiz Fusion that allows for theming and full composite window decorations with the use of engines. Emerald allows for all sorts of different configurations and layouts of buttons, look, title bars and frames. Emerald Window Decorator is completely independent of any desktop, and you specify your own themes to use for it. In this post I will describe how to install emerald under Debian Linux 6 amd64.

Debian Linux 6: Install and Configure Compiz Eye Candy Effects

Compiz is an OpenGL compositing windows manager for the X Window system. It use 3D graphics hardware to create desktop effects such as a rotating desktop cubes, a minimization animation and many other effects are created using plugins. In this post I will explain how to install compiz on Debian Linux 6 with NVIDIA GPU. However, instructions should also work on Debian lenny and Intel 3000 or latest Intel 4000 video cards.