How do I display or change a default page other than index.html or index.php under Apache web server?
Q. I have successfully configured Apache web server for my client. But why does my clients website just say “Error 403 Forbidden”? For example when client send request http://myclient.com/something/ Apache generate a 403 error. How do I troubleshoot this problem?
Q. I would like to use Server Side Include (SSI) from my html pages. But it is not working for VirtualHost. How do I configure Apache Server Side Include?
A. From Aapache site, “SSI (Server Side Includes) are directives that are placed in HTML pages, and evaluated on the server while the pages are being served. They let you add dynamically generated content to an existing HTML page, without having to serve the entire page via a CGI program, or other dynamic technology”.
Make sure you have following configuration directive/line in your .htaccess or httpd.conf file:
Add following directive:
Above directive (Options +Includes) tells Apache that you want to permit files to be parsed for SSI directives.
Next, make sure Apache knows which files should be parsed using SSI.
AddType text/html .shtml
AddHandler server-parsed .shtml
Now test your configuration by adding any one of the following SSI directive:
$ vi test.shtml
Append any one of the following SSI directive:
<!–#echo var=”DATE_LOCAL” –>
Save the file. Restart Apache and test your configuration.
For more information see Apache SSI tutorial
Apache web server allows server access based upon various conditions. For example you just want to restrict access to url http://payroll.nixcraft.in/ (mapped to /var/www/sub/payroll directory) from 192.168.1.0/24 network (within intranet).
Apache provides access control based on client hostname, IP address, or other characteristics of the client request using mod_access module.
Open your httpd.conf file:
# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.confLocate directory section (for example/var/www/sub/payroll) and set it as follows:
Allow from 192.168.1.0/24
Allow from 127
- Order allow,deny: The Order directive controls the default access state and the order in which Allow and Deny directives are evaluated. The (allow,deny) Allow directives are evaluated before the Deny directives. Access is denied by default. Any client which does not match an Allow directive or does match a Deny directive will be denied access to the server.
- Allow from192.168.1.0/24: The Allow directive affects which hosts can access an area of the server (i.e. /var/www/sub/payroll/). Access is only allowed from network 192.168.1.0/24 and localhost (127.0.0.1).
Save file and restart apache web server:
# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
Q. How do I install a Perl module under Linux or UNIX like operating system?
A. Perl modules (a Perl module is a discrete component of software for the Perl programming language) can be installed using various methods under different Linux distributions.
Task: Install perl module
If you are using Red Hat Linux then use up2date command to install most common modules:
# up2date module-name
Use following command to list all supported modules:
# up2date --showall | grep -i 'perl'
OR use yum command under CentOS/RHEL 5/Fedora core:
# yum list available 'perl'
If you are using Debian Linux, try to use apt-get command to install common perl module. However following is the recommended way to install a perl module.
A) Start CPAN Shell:
# perl -MCPAN -e shell
B) Install a perl module:
At cpan> shell prompt install module using install module::Name command. For example install module called MIME::Lite:
# cpan> install MIME::Lite
Alternatively, try out the following command:
# cpan -i MIME::Lite
Q. How do I run a shell script from a web server or a web page under Apache or Lighttpd websever?
A. In order to run a shell script from a web page you need Apache web server configured with cgi access. Apache CGI allows documents/files in cgi-bin directory treated as application and run by server when requested rather than as documents sent to the client.. It means if you put shell script in cgi-bin directory then you are able to execute them from a web page. However, you cannot simply run shell script from a web. You need to send or print the MIME type before outputting data to the web browser from shell script. You need to add following line to script before you get output back to browser:
echo "Content-type: text/html" echo ""
Here is the script that can displays today’s date and other information related to your shell script:
#!/bin/bash # get today's date OUTPUT="$(date)" # You must add following two lines before # outputting data to the web browser from shell # script echo "Content-type: text/html" echo "" echo "<html><head><title>Demo</title></head><body>" echo "Today is $OUTPUT <br>" echo "Current directory is $(pwd) <br>" echo "Shell Script name is $0" echo "</body></html>"
Save the script in your cgi-bin directory and execute it from web page.
=> For more examples see how to: Run Linux / UNIX commands from a web page.