Linux LAN card: Find out full duplex / half speed or mode

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Q. How do I find out if my Lan (NIC) card working at full or halt duplex mode / speed under Linux?

A. LAN card or NIC is use to send and receive data. Technically, we use word Duplex for this functionality. Full duplex means you are able to send and receive data (files) simultaneously. In half duplex, you can either send or receive data at a time (i.e. you cannot send receive data (files) simultaneously). Obviously, full duplex gives you best user experience. However, how can I find out whether I am using full duplex/half duplex speed/mode?

Task: Find full or half duplex speed

You can use dmesg command to find out your duplex mode:
# dmesg | grep -i duplex
Output:

eth0: link up, 100Mbps, full-duplex, lpa 0x45E1

ethtool command

Uss ethtool to display or change ethernet card settings. To display duplex speed, enter:
# ethtool eth1
Output:

Settings for eth1:
        Supported ports: [ TP ]
        Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
                                1000baseT/Full 
        Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
        Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
                                1000baseT/Full 
        Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
        Speed: 10Mb/s
        Duplex: Full
        Port: Twisted Pair
        PHYAD: 0
        Transceiver: internal
        Auto-negotiation: on
        Supports Wake-on: umbg
        Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
        Link detected: yes

mii-tool command

You can also use mii-tool to find out your duplex mode. Type following command at shell prompt:
# mii-tool

Output:

eth0: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control, link ok

Remember,

  1. 100baseTx-FD: 100Mbps full duplex (FD)
  2. 100baseTx-HD: 100Mbps half duplex (HD)
  3. 10baseT-FD: 10Mbps full duplex (FD)
  4. 10baseT-HD: 10Mbps half duplex (HD)

mii-tool utility checks or sets the status of a network interface’s Media Independent Interface (MII) unit. Most fast ethernet adapters use an MII to autonegotiate link speed and duplex setting. If you are using old card then this utility may not work (use dmesg command).

This utility is useful for forcing specific Ethernet speed and duplex settings too, setup 100Mbps full duplex speed under Linux:
# mii-tool -F 100baseTx-FD

Setup 10Mbps half duplex:
# mii-tool -F 10baseT-HD

You can find more information about setting duplex speed here using ethtool command.

Updated for accuracy!

Linux: Find out Ethernet card driver name

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Under Linux, you use term called modules for device drivers. The driver can be loaded or unloaded as per your requirement using commands. Each driver or module gives the Linux information on how to control that particular Ethernet card. The name of each module (driver) is listed in the /etc/modules.conf file.

Command to find out Ethernet card driver name

You can try any one of the following command to find out your Ethernet card driver:

# dmesg | grep 'Ethernet driver'

Output:

8139cp: 10/100 PCI Ethernet driver v1.2 (Mar 22, 2004)

Or search a file called /var/log/dmesg:

# grep 'Ethernet driver' /var/log/dmesg

Output:

8139too Fast Ethernet driver 0.9.27
8139cp: 10/100 PCI Ethernet driver v1.2 (Mar 22, 2004)

You can also get driver name from config file:

# grep eth0 /etc/modules.conf

Output:

alias eth0 8139too

OR

# vi /etc/modules.conf

Search for eth0 string.

In above example 8139too is driver loaded for eth0. You can find out more information about this driver using modinfo command:

# modinfo 8139too

modinfo program to show information about a Linux Kernel module. You can also find out all loaded modules or drivers using lsmod command:

# lsmod | less

lsmod is a program to show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel.

See also:

Linux / UNIX find out what other users are doing?

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Q. Can you explain the command to find what users are doing on my UNIX / Linux system?

A. Both Linux and UNIX (FreeBSD/Solaris) has w command to show who is logged on and what they are doing.

The w command prints a summary of the current activity on the system, including what each user is doing.

=> The first line displays the current time of day

=> How long the system has been running

=> The number of users logged into the system

=> The load averages. The load average numbers give the number of jobs in the run queue averaged over 1, 5 and 15 minutes.

You can also use ps command which shows you process that are running on the system.

Type w command displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes.

Show who is logged on and what they are doing with w command

The fields output are the user’s login name, the name of the terminal the user is on, the host from which the user is logged in, the time the user logged on, the time since the user last typed anything, and the name and arguments of the current process.
$ w
Output:

radm    pS 66.90.90.102     Sun01PM  1day -bash
raj     pW 192.168.1.100.  7:42AM     5 ssh root@202.54.1.20
miku    pX a80-186-82-84.el  7:28AM    10 screen irssi
vivek   pY 196.15.193.111    4:11AM     0 nano -w hireme
rani    q0 dslbr0.bsnl.in    7:32AM    12 lynx http://slashdot.org/
jadmin  q2 dslbr5.bsnl.in    7:33AM     0 ssh jadmin@host.cyberciti.info
gad     q3 dslbr76.bsnl.in   7:40AM     0 -ksh
bencs   q5 dslbr22.bsnl.in   7:44AM     5 -zsh
vivek   q6 gw11-vsnl.in      7:47AM    11 -bash

You can use the ps command shows you processes that are running on the system:

$ ps -au | more
$ ps -au | less

So you can use both w and ps commands to find out who’s doing what.

How can I find out who is logged on my UNIX / Linux system?

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Q. How do I display who is on the UNIX / Linux system?

A. On a Linux (on Solaris/FreeBSD or any other UNIX) system, many users will be sharing the same server.

Users will use telnet (outdated and insecure) or ssh (secure and highly recommended) to login remotely.

So if you want to find out your friend or a coworker is logged in or not, use the following commands.

If you want to find out who’s logged in on the Linux server including what time they logged in and from which network computer then you can use who command:

who command ~ show who is logged on

who commands works with almost all Linux and UNIX like oses. It show who is logged on to your system. It displays information about currently logged in users. By default, this includes the login name, tty name, date and time of login and remote hostname if not local.
$ who
Output:

raj     ttypV    Jan 17 07:23   .     (192.168.1.10)
ben     ttypW    Jan 17 07:42   .     (192.168.1.11)
miku    ttypX    Jan 17 07:28   .     (user-del-net-202.vsnl.net.in)
root    ttypY    Jan 17 04:11   .     (196.15.183.151)
roomy   ttyq0    Jan 17 07:32   .     (org-rev-1.bsnl.net.in)
anita   ttyq2    Jan 17 07:33   .     (192.168.5.112)
gads    ttyq3    Jan 17 07:40   .     (gtw-1.nixcraft.in)
bencs   ttyq5    Jan 17 07:44   .     (dsl5.bsnl.co.in)
pol20um ttyq6    Jan 17 07:47   .     (gtw-2.nixcraft.co.in)

Sometime you just want to find out if user raj logged in or not then you can use grep command:

$ who | grep raj

Try out following command if you have more than 20+ users logged in (so that you can see one page of logged in users at a time):

$ who | less
$ who | more