How do I check swap (page) usage under Sun / Oracle Solaris Unix operating systems using command line options? How do I see virtual memory statistics including used and total swap space?
I‘m using dump command to backup file systems to tape and remote server. However, I’m not able to find any option that will allow me to exclude files or directories from backup. How do I force UNIX / Linux / FreeBSD dump command to exclude selected files (such as /var/cache or /usr/basejails) which I don’t want to backup?
How do I delete a column from an existing MySQL table using UNIX / Windows / Linux mysql command line utility sql syntax?
Q. Iâ€™m new to Linux and how do I examine filesystem and identify regular files or directories?
A. Both Linux and UNIX comes with ls command for examining the filesystem. You can use ls command to look at the filesystem. ls command can display:
=> Character devices
=> Regular files
=> Sym links (symbolic links)
=> Block devices
ls command examples
Display /etc directory files, enter:
$ ls /etc
When invoked without any arguments, ls lists the files in the current working directory:
Use -l (long option) to lists filenames, sizes, permissions, type and all other information:
$ ls /etc/passwd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2453 Jul 17 16:25 /etc/passwd
A directory is marked with a d as the first letter of the permissions field:
ls -ld /etc
drwxr-xr-x 88 root root 12288 Aug 5 23:46 /etc
A symbolic link is marked with an l (lower case L) as the first letter of the permissions string:
ls -l /bin/nisdomainname
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 8 Jul 10 08:50 /bin/nisdomainname -> hostname
- A named pipe is marked with a p as the first letter of the permissions string.
- A socket is marked with a s as the first letter of the permissions string.
- A character device is marked with a c as the first letter of the permissions strings. (ls -l /dev/console)
- A block device is marked with a b (ls -l /dev/sdb1).