Commonly used UNIX / Linux commands by new user

Q. . I’m a new Linux user. Can you tell me commonly used Linux / UNIX command?

A. If you are new to Linux/FreeBSD or Solaris then you will find that there are some very powerful commands that you use repeatedly. Here is a list of commonly used commands:

Shutdown the operating system

init 0
shutdown -h now

Reboot the operating system

init 6

Display the manual (man) page for the given command. The must command for mastering Linux/UNIX. If you do not know how to use some command, use man to display its manual page. Remember you can exit a man page by pressing q.
man ls
man man
man date

Switch the current user. If you logged in as vivek and need to change to user account jadmin, then you need to type following command:
su - jadmin
However, this command is mostly used to switch super user account. Just type command su – and you will switch to root user account with its entire environment exported
su -
Display the environment variable:
Display a message on the screen or display value of environment variable. For example, display value of HOME variable:
echo $HOME
Setup and export environment variable, for example setup JAVA path with following command:
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/java/bin
Display list of currently running process. To exit top press q
Display full path of shell command. For example display full path of gcc command:
which gcc
Display list of logged in users
Display what users are doing
Display status of network
netstat -r
netstat -nat

Display or setup routing table
Manage network interface
Red hat Linux menu driven utility to configure system
Suse Linux menu driven utility to configure system

FreeBSD menu driven utility to configure system

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CategoryList of Unix and Linux commands
Disk space analyzersdf duf ncdu pydf
File Managementcat cp mkdir tree
FirewallAlpine Awall CentOS 8 OpenSUSE RHEL 8 Ubuntu 16.04 Ubuntu 18.04 Ubuntu 20.04
Modern utilitiesbat exa
Network UtilitiesNetHogs dig host ip nmap
OpenVPNCentOS 7 CentOS 8 Debian 10 Debian 8/9 Ubuntu 18.04 Ubuntu 20.04
Package Managerapk apt
Processes Managementbg chroot cron disown fg glances gtop jobs killall kill pidof pstree pwdx time vtop
Searchingag grep whereis which
User Informationgroups id lastcomm last lid/libuser-lid logname members users whoami who w
WireGuard VPNAlpine CentOS 8 Debian 10 Firewall Ubuntu 20.04
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