Debian Linux Install GNU GCC Compiler and Development Environment

Posted on in Categories , , , last updated December 26, 2016

How do I install GNU/GCC compiler and related tools (such as make, debugger, man pages) collection under Debian Linux system using command line options?

You need to install following packages on Debian and Ubuntu Linux:
build-essential package – Installs the following collection to compile c/c++ program on Debian/Ubuntu Linux:

  1. libc6-dev – C standard library.
  2. gcc – C compiler.
  3. g++ – C++ compiler.
  4. make – GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs.
  5. dpkg-dev – Debian package development tools.

Debian install gcc and friends
Basically, build-essential package contains an informational list of packages which are considered essential for building Debian packages including gcc compiler, make and other required tools. This package also depends on the packages on that list, to make it easy to have the build-essential packages installed.

Installation

Open the Terminal and then type the following apt-get command as root user:
# apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
# apt-get install build-essential

OR
$ sudo apt-get install build-essential
Sample outputs:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  dpkg-dev fakeroot g++ g++-4.7 gcc gcc-4.7 libalgorithm-diff-perl libalgorithm-diff-xs-perl libalgorithm-merge-perl libc-dev-bin libc6-dev libdpkg-perl
  libfile-fcntllock-perl libitm1 libstdc++6-4.7-dev libtimedate-perl linux-libc-dev make manpages-dev
Suggested packages:
  debian-keyring g++-multilib g++-4.7-multilib gcc-4.7-doc libstdc++6-4.7-dbg gcc-multilib autoconf automake1.9 libtool flex bison gdb gcc-doc gcc-4.7-multilib
  libmudflap0-4.7-dev gcc-4.7-locales libgcc1-dbg libgomp1-dbg libitm1-dbg libquadmath0-dbg libmudflap0-dbg libcloog-ppl0 libppl-c2 libppl7 binutils-gold glibc-doc
  libstdc++6-4.7-doc make-doc
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  build-essential dpkg-dev fakeroot g++ g++-4.7 gcc gcc-4.7 libalgorithm-diff-perl libalgorithm-diff-xs-perl libalgorithm-merge-perl libc-dev-bin libc6-dev libdpkg-perl
  libfile-fcntllock-perl libitm1 libstdc++6-4.7-dev libtimedate-perl linux-libc-dev make manpages-dev
0 upgraded, 20 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 26.5 MB of archives.
After this operation, 67.6 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
Get:1 http://mirrors.kernel.org/debian/ stable/main libitm1 amd64 4.7.2-5 [36.6 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.kernel.org/debian/ stable/main libc-dev-bin amd64 2.13-38 [224 kB]
.....
....
....
Setting up manpages-dev (3.44-1) ...
Setting up g++-4.7 (4.7.2-5) ...
Setting up g++ (4:4.7.2-1) ...
update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/g++ to provide /usr/bin/c++ (c++) in auto mode
Setting up build-essential (11.5) ...
Setting up libstdc++6-4.7-dev (4.7.2-5) ...

Verify installation

You can verify gcc compiler and make tool using the following syntax:
$ whereis gcc make
$ gcc -v
$ make -v

Sample outputs:

gcc: /usr/bin/gcc /usr/lib/gcc /usr/bin/X11/gcc
make: /usr/bin/make /usr/bin/X11/make /usr/share/man/man1/make.1.gz
...
..
gcc version 4.7.2 (Debian 4.7.2-5) 
...
..
GNU Make 3.81
..

Now, you should able to compile software, create Debian packages or simply write a code using C / C++ compilers.

How do I install dev man pages?

Type the following command:
$ sudo apt-get install manpages-dev
Sample outputs:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
  manpages
Suggested packages:
  man-browser
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  manpages manpages-dev
0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 3,134 kB of archives.
After this operation, 5,042 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 manpages all 4.04-2 [1,087 kB]
Get:2 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 manpages-dev all 4.04-2 [2,048 kB]
Fetched 3,134 kB in 6s (500 kB/s)                                         
Selecting previously unselected package manpages.
(Reading database ... 22189 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../manpages_4.04-2_all.deb ...
Unpacking manpages (4.04-2) ...
Selecting previously unselected package manpages-dev.
Preparing to unpack .../manpages-dev_4.04-2_all.deb ...
Unpacking manpages-dev (4.04-2) ...
Setting up manpages (4.04-2) ...
Setting up manpages-dev (4.04-2) ...
See also
  • Man pages: apt-get(8)

Posted by: Vivek Gite

The author is the creator of nixCraft and a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector. Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+.

24 comment

  1. hello. i can`t use apt-get, becouse he cannot do the updates. i think the update server for apt-get its old. how i fix this problem ?

    0% [Conectando a mirrors.ubv.edu.ve (167.134.102.17)]

    1. Usually you have to change the mirror from where Deb gets the updates/upgrades/repo. It can be done via modifying in /etc/apt/sources.list
      Choose the mirror it fits best, usually the one from your country

      the line that you should add in sources must look like this ( give you the Romanian mirror ) :

      http://www.debian.org/debian/ free stretch contrib main

      Also is better to comment ( # ) the previous ( not working ) source.

  2. When i try to do apt-get install build-essential i get the following message:

    Media change: please insert the disc labeled
    ‘Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.5 _Lenny_ – Official i386 CD Binary-1 20100626-17:37’
    in the drive ‘/cdrom/’ and press enter

    I never had a disc.. so i can’t insert it now.. not sure what to do. can anyone help, please (i am very new to this so a little slow)

    Thanks!

    1. Hi Kay,
      Just edit your apt source list, located at /etc/apt, by typing this :
      (as root) gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
      Then put a # in the beginning line that says deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.0 _Squeeze_ – Official i386 CD Binary-1 20110205-17:27]/ squeeze main==>example from my sources.list

      Save the file. Still as root type apt-get update. Then you can try install/upgrade again.

  3. So many things I try to install have errors and complications at every turn on this new debian system. A real pain in the butt. Well I guess I wanted to learn linux so this is what it’s all about
    Here is what I get when i try to run your apt-get install build-essential
    The following packages have unmet dependencies:
    initscripts : Breaks: console-setup (< 1.74) but 1.68+squeeze2 is to be installed
    Breaks: nfs-common (< 1:1.2.5-3) but 1:1.2.2-4squeeze2 is to be installed
    libglib2.0-0 : Breaks: eog (< 3.2.2-3) but 2.30.2-1 is to be installed
    network-manager : Recommends: crda but it is not going to be installed
    Breaks: network-manager-gnome (< 0.9) but 0.8.1-2 is to be installed
    E: Broken packages
    [email protected]:/home/aaron/cmake-2.8.9/cmake-build#

  4. This is what i get when trying build-essential

    The following packages have unmet dependencies:
    initscripts : Breaks: console-setup (< 1.74) but 1.68+squeeze2 is to be installed
    Breaks: nfs-common (< 1:1.2.5-3) but 1:1.2.2-4squeeze2 is to be installed
    libglib2.0-0 : Breaks: eog (< 3.2.2-3) but 2.30.2-1 is to be installed
    network-manager : Recommends: crda but it is not going to be installed
    Breaks: network-manager-gnome (< 0.9) but 0.8.1-2 is to be installed
    E: Broken packages

  5. Hi there,
    I’ve a problem which I hope you can help me. As I do:
    > apt-get install update
    I get this error:
    > apt-get: /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6: version `GLIBCXX_3.4.20′ not found (required by apt-get)
    > apt-get: /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6: version `GLIBCXX_3.4.20′ not found (required by /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libapt-private.so.0.0)
    I’m newbie and I couldn’t solve the problem! I would appreciate if someone helps me.

  6. Cool!
    one comment – you will be needing a debugger and the headers.
    A build system can go without GDB, but it needs headers/dev version of whatever :)
    all best and happy holidays!

  7. hi, i want to install backports in my kali computer but i got this message :
    cc1: some warnings being treated as errors
    /usr/src/linux-headers-4.9.0-kali3-common/scripts/Makefile.build:298: recipe for target ‘/root/backports-4.4.2-1/compat/main.o’ failed
    make[8]: *** [/root/backports-4.4.2-1/compat/main.o] Error 1
    /usr/src/linux-headers-4.9.0-kali3-common/scripts/Makefile.build:549: recipe for target ‘/root/backports-4.4.2-1/compat’ failed
    make[7]: *** [/root/backports-4.4.2-1/compat] Error 2
    /usr/src/linux-headers-4.9.0-kali3-common/Makefile:1507: recipe for target ‘module/root/backports-4.4.2-1’ failed
    make[6]: *** [_module_/root/backports-4.4.2-1] Error 2
    Makefile:150: recipe for target ‘sub-make’ failed
    make[5]: *** [sub-make] Error 2
    Makefile:8: recipe for target ‘all’ failed
    make[4]: *** [all] Error 2
    Makefile.build:6: recipe for target ‘modules’ failed
    make[3]: *** [modules] Error 2
    Makefile.real:88: recipe for target ‘modules’ failed
    make[2]: *** [modules] Error 2
    Makefile:40: recipe for target ‘modules’ failed
    make[1]: *** [modules] Error 2
    Makefile:30: recipe for target ‘default’ failed
    make: *** [default] Error 2

    plz…help

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