FreeBSD send mail with attachments from command line / shell prompt

I need to send a few reports everyday as a mail attachment. I’m using FreeBSD 6.2/7.x/8.x/9.x/10.x/11.x/12.x+ server. How do I send mail from a command line or a shell script when using FreeBSD Unix server??

You can easily send email attachment using mutt mail client. It works from command line or a shell prompt. However mutt is not installed by default. You need to install mutt command. mutt command also works under UNIX and Linux like operating systems. Let us see how to send mail with attachments with mutt on FreeBSD Unix system.

Install mutt under FreeBSD

Mutt is a small but very powerful text based program for reading electronic mail under unix operating systems, including support color terminals, MIME, and a threaded sorting mode. Use the pkg_add command to install binary software package distributions.

Searching for mutt

The command is:
# pkg search mutt
Here is what we see

font-mutt-misc-1.0.3_4         X.Org miscellaneous Mutt fonts
mutt-2.0.2                     Small but powerful text based program for read/writing e-mail
mutt_vc_query-002              vCard query utility for mutt
mutter-3.36.6                  Window and compositing manager based on Clutter
muttprint-0.73_4               Utility to print mail for most any mail client
neomutt-20200925_1             Bringing together all the Mutt Code
notmuch-mutt-0.31              Integrates the Notmuch email search and tagging application with Mutt
rubygem-mutter-0.5.3           Tiny command-line interface library

Installing mutt on FreeBSD

Older FreeBSD users type:
# pkg_add -v -r mutt
For the latest version of FreeBSD, run the following pkg command:
# pkg install mutt
Alternatively, you can use FreeBSD ports collections:
# cd /usr/ports/mail/mutt
# make install clean

FreeBSD send mail with attachments by installing mutt using pkg

Installing mutt to send attachments from FreeBSD jail or cloud server

FreeBSD send mail with attachments

Send reports.tar.gz file to vivek@gmail.co.in as attachment, enter:
$ mutt -s "Reports" -a reports.tar.gz vivek@gmail.co.in < /dev/null
## NOTE: latest version of mutt uses -- before email-id ##
mutt -s "Reports" -a /root/.viminfo -- vivek.gite@gmail.com < /dev/null

OR
$ mutt -s "Subject" -a reports.tar.gz vivek@gmail.co.in < /tmp/mail-message.txt
$ mutt -s "Subject" -a reports.tar.gz -- vivek@gmail.co.in < /tmp/mail-message.txt

Where,

  • -a file : Attach a file to your message using MIME.
  • -s subject : Specify the subject of the message.
  • -- email-id : Attach a file using MIME. Separating file and email-id arguments with “--” is mandatory. For example: mutt -a screenshot.jpg -- you@example OR mutt -a foo.jpg bar.tiff *.png -- you@example1 you@example2-dot-com. The -a option must be placed at the end of command line options.
  • < /tmp/mail-message.txt : Read email body text from the /tmp/mail-message.txt file.
  • < /dev/null : Send an email without body text.

Sending multiple attachments using mutt on FreeBSD

For multiple file attachments use the -a option for each file as follows:
$ mutt -s "Subject" -a file1.tar.gz -a file2.tar.gz -- vivek@gmail.co.in < /dev/null

How to specify a blind carbon-copy (BCC) address mutt

The syntax is as follows with the -b option:
$ mutt -s "FreeBSD server disk failed" -b alert@sysadmin-email-list -a disk.log.gz -- vivek@gmail.co.in < /dev/null

Specify a carbon-copy (CC) address with mutt

Pass the -c option to the mutt on FreeBSD Unix server:
$ mutt -s "ZFS problem" -c admin@somwhere-com -a zfs.disk.log.gz -- vivek@nixcraft.co.in < /dev/null

Getting help

All you have to do is type the following command:
$ mutt -h

Summing up

For more information read mutt command man page or docs online:
$ man mutt


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🐧 7 comments so far... add one

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7 comments… add one
  • qp Apr 17, 2009 @ 3:39

    Can a mutt-1.5.19 be installed on a FreeBSD system (where there’s a mutt-1.4.2.3) by a user who doesn’t have root acccess? Using pkg_add or any other way? If so, how? Any tips appreciated. (I tried & got a lot of “permission denied.”)

    • 🐧 nixCraft Apr 17, 2009 @ 4:48

      Noop. You need to be root to install software.

  • qp50cklw Apr 17, 2009 @ 6:43

    > Noop. You need to be root to install software.

    Well, surely there must be some way for users on a FreeBSD system to install programs into their own home directory. If not, then I don’t see much “free” in FreeBSD.

    • 🐧 nixCraft Apr 17, 2009 @ 8:37

      You don’t understand security concept, do you? This is a security feature. Otherwise, it will just like MS-Windows, you can install anything including virus without your permission. I suggest you get a good book which explains basic UNIX concepts.

    • Ben Aug 6, 2014 @ 2:22

      You can install packages or source to your own home directory; you typically need to be root because, when installing a package/port system-wide (the usual behaviour), you need to place the pieces of this application in different system directories (/usr/bin, /etc, /usr/lib etc.), and this requires root/superuser permissions.

      In Windows, users are typically setup as ‘Administrators’, making it easier for them to install new software they want; the software is kept all in one place, in it’s own directory in Program Files, but this is still a system directory and needs Admin (root) privileges. Windows users are encouraged to have an Admin account for installing new software, and a limited User account just for their own space, however in practise nobody really does this because it’s too difficult, and Windows systems as home desktops are really just there for playing games and doing unimportant crap.

      In either situation – yes, it would actually be (arguably) better to let users only install applications to their local home directories, for their local use, running them with their own limited credentials; this way, even if you installed a piece of malware, it should only affect you, or at least, be unable to do system-wide damage (or, if you’ve chrooted/jailed your home dir somehow, it shouldn’t be able to get to the outer filesystem either).

      But BSD machines, and most Unix systems, are used as serious midrange business servers; only new software that’s been vetted by someone, or is in the standard ports tree to begin with, is installed – by someone with root privileges, and usually as part of a painstakingly complex upgrade process. This is not the same as a personal home Windows desktop system.

      TL;DR Needing root privileges to install a package is only to install it system-wide (which it usually is), because the process will need to add files to directories like /usr/bin, /etc, /usr/lib and so on.

  • Thomas Wildeman Dec 17, 2020 @ 22:05

    One should note that certain versions of mutt require the double-dash after the attachment before the email address — e.g.:

    mutt -s "files" -a foo.tar.gz -- first.last@example.com

    • 🐧 Vivek Gite Dec 18, 2020 @ 1:09

      I updated the page. I appreciate your feedback and comment.

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