Linux route Add Command Examples

Posted on in Categories , , last updated November 9, 2013

I am a new Linux user. How do I add a new or default gateway using route command on Linux operating systems? How can I use route command to show or set a new route on Linux based server or desktop system?

You can use any one of the following tool to add, display, delete Linux kernel routing table:

(a) route command : show / manipulate the IP routing table on Linux.

(b) ip command : show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels on Linux.

Display your current routing table

Open the Terminal or login to server using ssh/console. Type the following command to display routing table:
# route
OR
# route -n
Sample outputs:

Fig.01: Display routing table using route command
Fig.01: Display routing table using route command

# ip route show
OR
# ip route list
Sample outputs:
Fig.02: ip command in action
Fig.02: ip command in action

Linux add a default route using route command

Route all traffic via 192.168.1.254 gateway connected via eth0 network interface:
# route add default gw 192.168.1.254 eth0

Linux add a default gateway (route) using ip command

Route all traffic via 192.168.1.254 gateway connected via eth0 network interface:
# ip route add 192.168.1.0/24 dev eth0

Verify newly added route ip in the Linux kernel routing table

To verify new routing table, enter:
# ip route list
OR
# route -n

Verify new route

Use the ping command to verify connectivity to your router or external network:
# ping your-router-ip-here
# ping your-ISPs-Gateway-ip-here
# ping 192.168.1.254
# ping www.cyberciti.biz

How do I make routing changes persistent across reboots?

To make route entry persistent in the Linux kernel routing table, you need to modify config file as per your Linux distributions.

RHEL/CentOS/Fedora/Scientific Linux persistent routing configuration

Edit /etc/sysconfig/network and set default gateway IP address:
# vi /etc/sysconfig/network
Sample outputs:

GATEWAY=192.168.1.254

You can add additional static route for eth0 by editing /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0 file as follows:

10.0.0.0/8 via 10.10.29.65

The above config sets static routing for network 10.0.0.0/8 via 10.9.38.65 router.

Debian / Ubuntu Linux persistence static routing configuration

Edit /etc/network/interfaces file, enter:
# vi /etc/network/interfaces
Append the following in eth0 section:

up route add -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.254
down route del -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.254

Save and close the file.

Generic method to add persistent static routing on Linux

The following method works with almost all Linux distributions.

Edit /etc/rc.d/rc.local or /etc/rc.local, enter
# vi /etc/rc.local
Append the following line:

/sbin/ip route add 192.168.1.0/24 dev eth0

Save and close the file.

Recommended readings

Posted by: Vivek Gite

The author is the creator of nixCraft and a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector. Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+.

27 comment

  1. Changes to survive a reboot can be set in
    /etc/sysconfig/networking/devices/route-ethX

    Other profiles for switching between different configurations can be found in
    /etc/sysconfig/networking/profiles/default/route-ethX

  2. Dear All,

    I have a problem , my default route will go away when i reboot my system, regarding to this matter that all info was issued under interface network-script.

    Please advice,
    Momo.

    1. Hi
      add the route command in linux

      # route add -net 10.10.1.1/24 ethx
      Alternate is by ip command
      # ip route add 10.10.2.2/24 ethx
      after that configure gateway,netmask and ip in route-ethx file located in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts dir.

      Thanks.

  3. Adding the route command in Linux

    Route traffic via 192.168.0.5 gateway destined to 192.168.1.16 :

    route add -net 192.168.1.16 netmask 255.255.255.240 gw 192.168.0.5

    This will handle all the traffice from your client systems destined to the 192.168.1.16 subnet.
    The resources that will be accessed are in the range 192.168.1.16 – 192.168.1.30

    I have tried it on Suse Linux, and i belive other flavors are similar or close to this .

    Thanks

    Prosper

  4. To add default route for a host:
    #route add 192.168.0.1 gw 10.0.0.1
    “where 192.168.0.1 is destination host, gw commad to specify gateway and 10.0.0.1 is the gateway to destination host. (Test on Feroda 11)”

  5. Another way to add route at startup (testing on CentOS)

    edit file /etc/rc.d/rc.local (add to end of file your route):
    /sbin/route add -net 192.168.11.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 10.0.0.1

    After reboot check your route table:
    /sbin/route

  6. The routing information above is not persistent across reboots. After a reboot, the routing information will be lost and you need to add them in again.

    To make the routing information persistent, add the “route add” line as seen above into the /etc/rc.local file.

    Sample /etc/rc.local file.

    #!/bin/sh
    #
    # This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
    # You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don’t
    # want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.
    touch /var/lock/subsys/local
    route add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 192.168.1.1

  7. Hi,
    I want to do ping6 to another linux machine..I added inet6 address in both the linux machine in the main LAN interface..bt ping6 is not wrking. “Destination Unreachable is coming”. So,For that when i tried to add route to ipv6 thorough a gateway,using the command ” /sbin/route -A inet6 add 2000::/64 gw 2000:db8:0:bbbb::1 ” is is telling invalid command..pls help me with this and how can i rectify it.

  8. check the routes #route

    route add -net netmask gw

    after add permanent route entry
    create a file vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0

    after add route entry this format

    ADDRESS0=
    NETMASK0=
    GATEWAY0=

    ADDRESS1=
    NETMASK1=
    GATEWAY1=

    ADDRESS2=
    NETMASK2=
    GATEWAY2=

  9. En los sistemas RHEL/CentOS/Fedora/Scientific Linux la configuración de la ruta por defecto (default gateway) se guarda en /etc/sysconfig/network y las rutas estáticas en /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-ethX (siendo X el número de la placa de red, verbigracia eth0 para la primer placa red).

    En los sistemas Debian / Ubuntu Linux la configuración de la ruta por defecto (default gateway) se guarda en /etc/network/interfaces y las rutas estáticas se pueden agregar bajo a sección eth0 o bien en el archivo /etc/rc.local junto con las definiciones de ejecuciones de archivos locales al inicio del sistema.

    Lic. Matias Colli
    Perito Judicial en Informática
    RHCSA

  10. how to add the route in lubuntu
    route add 172.18.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.100 -p also how to check the route table. the application needs IE siebel framework. need solution

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